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Evangelos A. Calamitsis

For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.

Mr. Jan Kees Martijn, Gabriel Di Bella, Mr. Shamsuddin Tareq, Mr. Benedict J. Clements, and Mr. Abebe Aemro Selassie

Abstract

Macroeconomic outcomes in low-income countries (LICs) have improved markedly in recent years, but important questions remain regarding possible adjustments in the design of IMF-supported programs in such countries. This paper draws on a review of the literature as well as the experience of 15 LICs that have attained some degree of macroeconomic stability to discuss, for example, the appropriate target range for inflation in shock-prone LICs; whether countries should use fiscal space to cut excessive tax burdens, reduce high debt levels, or raise public spending; and how the effectiveness of public expenditures can be improved.

International Monetary Fund

This paper reviews economic developments in Ethiopia during 1995–99. It provides an update on macroeconomic performance and structural reforms during FY96–FY99 (fiscal year ended July 7), when Ethiopia—as Africa’s second most populous country and one of the world’s poorest nations—continued to make strides in transitioning to a market-based economy and alleviating widespread poverty. The paper also highlights the major challenges in the areas of financial sector liberalization, civil service reform, and privatization.

International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper assesses the implications of a significant increase in the flow of external financing and grants on real GDP growth in Ethiopia. The paper presents an analysis of the sources of growth during 1991/92–2003/04, as well as an assessment of potential GDP growth. The paper also seeks to assess the historical relationship between foreign aid and the performance of the external sector in Ethiopia to establish whether foreign aid inflows have had an adverse effect on the tradable goods sector in the past.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

The newly issued five-year second Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP II) envisages continued high growth and public infrastructure investment, while placing a greater emphasis on private sector development and foreign direct investment (FDI), competitiveness, and export-oriented industrialization. A major drought and deterioration of the external environment resulted in a 2015/16 growth slowdown to an estimated 6.5 percent. Stability-oriented macroeconomic policies and effective policy responses, including food imports, to mitigate the drought's social costs kept inflation low and the budget deficit on target. The current account, however, posted for a second year a deficit above 10 percent of GDP.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The year 2005 marks an important juncture for development as the international community takes stock of implementation of the Millennium Declaration—signed by 189 countries in 2000—and discusses how progress toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) can be accelerated. The MDGs set clear targets for reducing poverty and other human deprivations and for promoting sustainable development. What progress has been made toward these goals, and what should be done to accelerate it? What are the responsibilities of developing countries, developed countries, and international financial institutions? Global Monitoring Report 2005 addresses these questions. This report, the second in an annual series assessing progress on the MDGs and related development outcomes, has a special focus on Sub-Saharan Africa—the region that is farthest from the development goals and faces the toughest challenges in accelerating progress. The report finds that without rapid action to accelerate progress, the MDGs will be seriously jeopardized—especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, which is falling short on all the goals. It calls on the international community to seize the opportunities presented by the increased global attention to development to build momentum for the MDGs. The report presents in-depth analysis of the agenda and priorities for action. It discusses improvements in policies and governance that developing countries need to make to achieve stronger economic growth and scale up human development and relevant key services. It examines actions that developed countries need to take to provide more and better development aid and to reform their trade policies to improve market access for developing country exports. And it evaluates how international financial institutions can strengthen and sharpen their support for this agenda. Global Monitoring Report 2005 is essential reading for development practitioners and those interested in international affairs.

Mr. Jan Kees Martijn, Gabriel Di Bella, Mr. Shamsuddin Tareq, Mr. Benedict J. Clements, and Mr. Abebe Aemro Selassie

Abstract

PRGF-supported programs in the 15 mature stabilizers during 2000–03 have generally sought to consolidate macroeconomic stability and foster growth. By and large, growth outcomes have been in line with program targets. Reflecting favorable initial conditions, there has been limited emphasis on further disinflation. On the fiscal front, programs have sought to increase capital spending, but have not been generally successful. Developments in the external accounts have been less favorable; while external reserves have increased, current account deficits have remained too large to ensure external viability even after debt relief from the enhanced HIPC Initiative. The rest of this section discusses these stylized facts in more detail.

Mr. Jan Kees Martijn, Gabriel Di Bella, Mr. Shamsuddin Tareq, Mr. Benedict J. Clements, and Mr. Abebe Aemro Selassie

Abstract

As noted above, maintaining inflation in the low single digits is an important feature of PRGF-supported programs in the mature stabilizers. In general, programs sought to keep inflation in the 4–6 percent range. The next two parts of this section consider the appropriateness of these targets and the monetary policy framework in which these targets have been pursued. A third part considers the nexus between private sector credit growth, fiscal policy, and economic activity.

International Monetary Fund

This paper assesses Ethiopia’s Second Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF), and Requests for Augmentation of Access and for Waiver of Performance Criterion, and Second Annual Program. Performance under the first annual PRGF-supported program was satisfactory in the context of Ethiopia’s steady progress toward peace with Eritrea. All quantitative and structural performance criteria through October 2001 were observed, with the exception of the adjusted performance criterion on the net domestic assets of the National Bank of Ethiopia, for which the authorities request a waiver.

International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.