International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper discusses the appointment of A. W. Clausen as the new World Bank president. Mr. Clausen, 57, joined the Bank of America in 1949 as a trainee just out of the University of Minnesota law school and rose to become president of the San Francisco-based institution 21 years later. His career at the Bank of America spanned 31 years, and he played an important role in the bank’s expansion in the United States and overseas. Mr. Clausen has been bestowed many honors, including the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic.
Mr. Benedicte Baduel, Carolin Geginat, and Ms. Gaelle Pierre
This paper examines the extent to which firms in selected MENA countries reported being constrained by the business environment around the time of the Arab Spring and the extent to which these constraints affected their employment performance. The results suggest that small firms in MENA faced more structural constraints than similar firms in other regions. We also find that MENA firms’ weaker job creation can be explained in great part by the macroeconomic environment and structural constraints. Low GDP growth, falling external competitiveness, corruption, lack of access to finance and poor access to electricity are found to explain a significant part of the lack of employment growth in MENA firms compared to their peers.
This seminar volume, edited by Said El-Naggar, examines the challenge that Arab countries with large public sectors face in placing the privatization process within the wider context of structural change.