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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

This paper examines the expanded role for the International Finance Corporation (IFC) with a major capital increase. The paper highlights that for the first time in its history, the IFC is undertaking a major increase of its share capital. In a decision made by its Board of Governors in November 1977, the IFC’s authorized capital stock has been increased by US$540 million, from US$110 million to US$650 million. Of the increase, US$480 million has been allocated for subscription by current member countries. More than US$165 million has already been subscribed and US$33 million paid.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.

Mamadou Dia

For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.

International Monetary Fund
This paper on Cameroon’s Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative explains implementation of the poverty reduction strategy and macroeconomic performance. Executive Directors agreed that Cameroon’s external public debt was above the HIPC Initiative sustainability threshold, and the country was eligible for assistance in the amount of US$1.26 billion in 1999. Assuming prudent fiscal policies and robust non-oil real GDP growth, Cameroon’s external public debt is expected to be sustainable over the long term.
Mr. Philip R. Gerson
This paper examines a two-sector aggregative growth model with human capital and educated unemployment. In the model, a tuition subsidy may lead to a long-run decline in the educated fraction of the population, because it may decrease the long-run per capita stock of physical capital in the economy, tending to reduce the output of the education sector and the incentives for workers to enroll in school. Thus, cuts in education subsidies undertaken by countries in Africa for adjustment reasons may actually lead to long-run increases in the educational attainment of their populations.
Mr. Christian H. Beddies
This paper considers the potential variables that have determined economic growth in The Gambia during 1964–98. The results indicate that The Gambia’s aggregate production function exhibits increasing returns to scale, thus supporting the endogenous growth-type model. The impact of private investment—and thus private capital accumulation—on output is large and significant. Furthermore, increases in public investment boost output substantially. Finally, the effects associated with human capital accumulation are positive and statistically significant. The paper also estimates a series on total factor productivity growth that indicates that The Gambia was able to use its resources more efficiently.
Avishay Braverman and Monika Huppi

The record on directed and subsidized credit to farmers has been poor. Sound policy reforms, therefore, need to tackle the defects of the institutional structure of the particular rural economy

Roger Leeds, Camille Sitou, Cotonou Benin, Mohammed Tahraoui, Boubakar Amadou, Brice Hilaire Kemguem, and Ngaoundéré Cameroon

The June 2007 issue of F&D spotlights gender equality. The lead article discusses progress toward fulfilling the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) on redressing gender discrimination and empowering women and related MDGs. The section also looks at how budgeting with gender issues in mind can help countries promote gender equality and what needs to be done to get girls from 'excluded' social groups into school. Other articles focus on Asia 10 years after the financial crisis, the implications of China's and India's growing ties with Africa, and making remittances work for Africa. 'Country Focus' looks at the challenges facing Bulgaria now that it has joined the European Union, 'Picture This' highlights the globalization of labor, and 'Back to Basics' gives a primer on microfinance. Two other pieces discuss the efficiency of public spending in Latin America and how countries can use the public sector balance sheet approach to diagnose vulnerabilities that are not immediately visible in the budget.