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Maria Arakelyan
We use bank-level data on 16 CESEE economies over 2005-2014 to assess the role of foreign banks in the region’s credit dynamics. We confirm that macroeconomic fundamentals of both host and home countries matter, as do the bank and parent bank characteristics. Moreover, we take a new approach by studying the drivers of differential credit growth between parent banks and their foreign subsidiaries. Host country macroeconomic fundamentals cease to play a significant role, while bank-level characteristics and in particular parent bank-level characteristics remain important. From policymakers’ perspective, the paper provides further empirical evidence on the importance of monitoring the health of foreign parent banks as well as the potential regulatory changes in their home jurisdictions.
Mr. Philippe D Karam, Ouarda Merrouche, Moez Souissi, and Rima Turk
We analyze the transmission of bank-specific liquidity shocks triggered by a credit rating downgrade through the lending channel. Using bank-level data for US Bank Holding Companies, we find that a credit rating downgrade is associated with an immediate and persistent decline in access to non-core deposits and wholesale funding, especially during the global financial crisis. This translates into a reduction in lending to households and non-financial corporates at home and abroad. The effect on domestic lending, however, is mitigated when banks (i) hold a larger buffer of liquid assets, (ii) diversify away from rating-sensitive sources of funding, and (iii) activate internal liquidity support measures. Foreign lending is significantly reduced during a crisis at home only for subsidiaries with weak funding self-sufficiency.
Mr. Brad J. McDonald, Mr. Geoffrey J Bannister, Ms. Natalia T. Tamirisa, Ms. Piritta Sorsa, and Mr. Jaroslaw Wieczorek
This paper reviews the economics of trade policy in financial services, highlighting differences between trade across borders and through commercial presence. Trade liberalization could complement other financial reforms by enhancing the efficiency, quality, and variety of financial services and by encouraging improvement of financial regulations and practices. However, it raises sectoral, strategic, and cultural concerns. The design of trade policy should therefore emphasize the nexus with the macroeconomic framework and other financial sector policies, especially prudential and capital account regulations. It should also differentiate between types of trade. National reforms should be coordinated with multilateral trade agreements and initiatives on international financial architecture.
Selin Sayek, Laura Alfaro, Areendam Chanda, and Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan
This paper examines the role financial markets play in the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and economic development. We model an economy with a continuum of agents indexed by their level of ability. Agents can either work for the foreign company or undertake entrepreneurial activities, which are subject to a fixed cost. Better financial markets allow agents to take advantage of knowledge spillovers from FDI, magnifying the output effects of FDI. Empirically, we show that well-developed financial markets allow significant gains from FDI, while FDI alone plays an ambiguous role in contributing to development.
Mr. JaeBin Ahn
This paper provides a theory model of trade finance to explain the "great trade collapse." The model shows that, first, the riskiness of international transactions rises relative to domestic transactions during economic downturns, and second, the exclusive use of a letter of credit in international transactions exacerbates a collapse in trade during a financial crisis. The basic model considers banks' optimal screening decisions in the presence of counterparty default risks. In equilibrium, banks will maintain a higher precision screening test for domestic firms and a lower precision screening test for foreign firms, which constitutes the main mechanism of the model.
International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & Review Department
The scenario planning exercises help to draw out the surveillance priorities and stress- test the robustness of those priorities to uncertainties in the decade ahead. To inform the two priorities on confronting risks and uncertainties and mitigating spillovers, the scenarios illustrate how different shocks and alternative policy approaches carry their own risks and can have both positive and negative spillovers. The scenarios also illustrate some of the complex economic and non-economic factors that feed into the priority on economic sustainability and demonstrate how resource constraints and changing economic structures underpin the need for a unified policy approach.