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International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.


Fiscal risks remain significant in both advanced and emerging market and developing economies. Fiscal policy continues to play an essential role in building confidence and, where appropriate, sustaining aggregate demand. According to this issue of the Fiscal Monitor, strengthening fiscal frameworks—particularly to manage public finance risks and ensure debt sustainability—must be part of the fiscal policy response. Countries should seize the moment created by lower oil prices to start the process of energy taxation and energy subsidy reform. Finally, fiscal policy can contribute substantially to macroeconomic stability, through the workings of automatic stabilizers. By doing so, fiscal policy can also unlock significant growth dividends.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

This paper reviews the speech delivered by Mr. Robert S. McNamara, President of the World Bank in Geneva in an address to the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations on July 23, 1979. In McNamara’s opinion, the “massive disparities” of living standards in the world are likely to continue. For his address, Mr. McNamara drew on projections and analyses from the World Development Report, 1979, of the World Bank. Mr. McNamara also emphasized the interdependence of the developed and developing countries.

International Monetary Fund
Despite achieving macroeconomic stability, there is not much improvement in Cameroon's social indicators. To achieve higher and more inclusive growth, the report mentioned that problems in sectors such as infrastructure and a reduction in per capita income and mounting costs of fuel subsidies should be attended to. Due diligence should be exercised to control the expenditure chain and to better track the flow of funds. Better cooperation between national and regional bodies should be initiated for financial stability.
International Monetary Fund
Benin’s Fifth Review under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility and request for waiver of Nonobservance of Performance Criteria are discussed. The main challenge ahead is to limit inflation pressures from higher food and fuel prices while sustaining medium-term fiscal consolidation and accelerating structural reforms to increase the sustainable growth rate. The authorities have taken actions to address the food and fuel crisis and accelerate structural reforms. They have allowed the full pass-through of higher international food and fuel prices and tightened fiscal policy while putting in place measures to protect the poor.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights that high oil prices and increased production have enabled the government in Kuwait to continue to record high fiscal and external surpluses and build strong buffers. Overall real non-oil GDP growth is projected to increase modestly to 3 percent in 2013, driven by an increase in domestic consumption and pick-up in public investment. A slight reduction in oil production would bring down total real GDP growth below 1 percent. The overall average consumer price inflation is projected at 3 percent in 2013. The economic outlook is expected to improve further in 2014 and over the medium term.
International Monetary Fund
The staff report for the 2008 Article IV Consultation of Trinidad and Tobago highlights economic developments and policies. Faced with a prospective decline in energy resources, the government has embarked on an ambitious development and diversification strategy. External vulnerability is low as a result of large international reserves and low debt ratios, and the banking sector has entered the period of global turmoil from a position of strength and with little reliance on external borrowing.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This staff report on Saudi Arabia’s 2013 Article IV Consultation discusses economic policies and development. As the largest crude oil exporter, and the only producer with significant spare capacity, Saudi Arabia plays a systemic and stabilizing role in the global oil market. In 2011, Saudi Arabia formally committed through the G20 to use its systemic position in the oil market to promote global stability. Saudi Arabia raised oil production to a 30-year high to ensure demand was met the abrupt decline in Libyan production in 2011, and continued geopolitical tensions in 2012. Growth in fiscal spending has contributed to continued robust growth in private-sector credit of more than 16 percent, and high levels of liquidity in the banking system.