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International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper on Bangladesh underlies the export performance of readymade garment industry and inflation dynamics. Bangladesh has demonstrated that it is highly competitive in the world’s major garment markets. Inflation inertia, monetary factors, and exchange rate fluctuations are the main determinants of inflation in Bangladesh. Despite adoption of numerous tax policy measures during the past few years, policies implemented by the Bangladesh authorities have not been fully successful in lifting the revenue ratio to a level warranted by developmental objectives.

International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

This Selected Issues paper explores key features of Belgium’s corporate income tax (CIT) regime as background for potential growth-enhancing reform options that also safeguard revenues and limit distortions. Comprehensive reform of business and investment income taxation in Belgium is both promising and challenging. The challenge arises from the need for fiscal consolidation and the limited scope for shifting the tax burden away from the CIT to other taxes. The absence of capital gains taxation undermines tax neutrality between different forms of businesses, leading to organizational inefficiencies and a misallocation of capital. Overall, there appears to be scope for a broader reform that could raise Belgium’s growth potential without undermining fiscal revenues.

International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues Paper on Belgium provides an overview of the extent of trade and financial openness of Belgium and the links to particular countries. With an export-to-GDP ratio of 79 percent, Belgium belongs to the most open economies in Europe and also globally. Its exports are highly concentrated with a share of three-fourths of total merchandise exports accounted for by the European Union, of which close to two-thirds go to Germany, France, and the Netherlands.

International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper on Bolivia reports that it has experienced major increases in its gas reserves, production, and exports. Not only have their levels increased significantly, but also there have been extensive regulatory changes, which range from the privatization of the mid-1990s to the increase in the government’s tax take from the hydrocarbons industry. The government has reached new agreements with foreign oil companies that will allow foreign companies to continue recovering part of their old investments.