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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

Dr. Yaga Venugopal Reddy was Governor, Reserve Bank of India, from 2003 to 2008. Subsequently, he was a member of the UN Commission of Experts to the President of the UN General Assembly on Reforms of the International Monetary and Financial System. Dr. Reddy was also a member of an informal international group of prominent persons on international monetary reforms (Palais Royal Initiative). He is Professor Emeritus at the University of Hyderabad and Distinguished Professor at the Indian Institute for Technology (IIT) Madras, as well as an honorary fellow of the London School of Economics and Political Science, and is on the Advisory Board of the Institute for New Economic Thinking (INET).

Mr. Timothy D. Lane

For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.

Muhammad Yunus, Raghuram G. Rajan, Henry M. Paulson, Jr., Johnson Simon, James Kwak, and Andrew Sheng

Asia Leading the Way explores how the region is moving into a leadership role in the world economy. The issue looks at Asia's biggest economy, China, which has relied heavily on exports to grow, and its need to increase domestic demand and to promote global integration if it is to continue to thrive. China is not the only Asian economy that heavily depends on exports and all of them might take some cues from the region's second-biggest economy, India, which has a highly developed services sector. Min Zhu, the new Special Advisor to the IMF's Managing Director, talks about Asia in the global economy, the global financial crisis, correcting imbalances, and the IMF in Asia. And "People in Economics" profiles an Asian crusader for corporate governance, Korea's Jang Hasung. This issue of F&D also covers how best to reform central banking in the aftermath of the global economic crisis; the pernicious effects of derivatives trading on municipal government finances in Europe and the United States; and some ominous news for governments hoping to rely on better times to help them reduce their debt burdens. Mohamed El-Erian argues that sovereign wealth funds are well-placed to navigate the new global economy that will emerge following the world wide recession. "Back to Basics" explains supply and demand. "Data Spotlight" explores the continuing weakness in bank credit. And "Picture This" focuses on the high, and growing, cost of energy subsidies.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This paper discusses the central banking, monetary, and banking laws for 17 countries in Europe, an area where many of the techniques that are now universally used in regulating or controlling the supply of money and credit were developed. The complete text of the basic central bank law of each country is given, as well as the by-laws of the central bank where they supplement major provisions of the basic law, and subsidiary legislation where pertinent. General banking laws are in most instances presented in summary form.