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International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.

This paper focuses on tax reforms for increased buoyancy in The Bahamas. The Bahamas has a low tax effort owing to limited tax handles and underutilization of available ones. Real property tax collections as percent of GDP have doubled within a decade. In addition to the real property taxes, a graduated stamp duty on the conveyance of immovable property is imposed at fairly steep rates. As a requirement to World Trade Organization membership, the tariff rates will be lowered from their current levels. It is expected that revenue losses from tariff reduction will be compensated by value-added tax revenues.

International Monetary Fund

The staff report for The Bahamas’s 2009 Article IV Consultation examines economic developments and policies. The financial sector, including the offshore sector, accounts for about 20 percent of economic activity. Exchange controls are maintained on capital transactions, narrowing the field of investment opportunities for local wealth, largely to real estate and government debt. Macroeconomic policy has historically been geared to maintaining fiscal sustainability, attracting investment, and supporting the exchange rate peg.

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

This 2016 Article IV Consultation highlights that economic growth in The Bahamas is estimated to have stalled in 2015, as a modest increase in air tourism arrivals was not sufficient to offset a contraction in domestic demand and weak exports of goods. Private consumption and investment were weighed down by headwinds from fiscal consolidation, as well as an end to construction. Inflation was moderate at 1.9 percent on average in 2015. Growth is expected to strengthen to about 0.5 percent in 2016, supported by continued growth in air tourist arrivals and moderating headwinds to private consumption and investment.

International Monetary Fund

This paper assesses the evolution of Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (ECCU) real exchange rates over time, and examines whether the region has lost competitiveness. The main finding is that there is little evidence of overvaluation of the Eastern Caribbean (EC) dollar. The relationship summarized above permits the calculation of equilibrium current account balances or norms. The financing of ECCU current account imbalances appears stable. This paper also provides evidence on the distinctive impact that tourism plays in the determination of the real exchange rate in tourism-driven economies.

International Monetary Fund
This report provides the details of the IMF's projections and estimates of The Bahamas on generation and sale of electricity; central government revenue and expenditure; summary central government operations; operations of the nonfinancial public sector; accounts of the financial system; accounts of the central bank, commercial banks, and other local financial institutions; loans and advances of commercial banks; liquidity positions of commercial banks; selected interest rates; balance of payments; composition of merchandise exports and imports; external public debt and debt service; comparative real exchange rate; operations of the National Insurance Board (NIB), and so on.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This 2018 Article IV Consultation highlights that The Bahamas’ real GDP is estimated to have expanded by 1.3 percent in 2017. Economic activity has been supported by the completion of Baha Mar, new foreign direct investment-financed projects, and post-hurricane reconstruction activity. However, air tourist arrivals declined 4 percent in 2017, reflecting the impact of Hurricane Matthew on hotel infrastructure in the Grand Bahama Island. Real GDP growth is projected at 2.5 percent in 2018 and 2.25 percent in 2019 on the back of stronger growth in the United States; the phased opening of Baha Mar; and a pickup in foreign direct investment. Medium-term growth is projected to remain at 1.5 percent, reflecting significant structural impediments.
International Monetary Fund
This 1999 Article IV Consultation highlights that real GDP growth for The Bahamas accelerated from less than 1 percent a year in 1994–95 to 4 percent in 1996, but slowed somewhat in 1997–98 as construction work on a second phase of tourism projects led to a decline in the number of available hotel rooms and in tourist arrivals. Following the completion of the expansion projects in November–December 1998, tourist arrivals rose sharply in the first quarter of 1999.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This 2017 Article IV Consultation highlights the continued weak economic activity in The Bahamas in 2016. Hurricane Matthew, which hit The Bahamas in October 2016, significantly impacted tourism activity in 2016 and early 2017. However, completion of the megaresort Baha Mar and posthurricane reconstruction activity gave a boost to job creation: the unemployment rate declined to 9.9 percent in May 2017. Real GDP growth is projected to pick up to 1.75 percent in 2017 and to 2.5 in 2018, driven by a stronger US economy, the phased opening of Baha Mar, and related construction activity. However, medium-term growth would remain low, reflecting significant structural bottlenecks.
Mr. John Kiff, Jihad Alwazir, Sonja Davidovic, Aquiles Farias, Mr. Ashraf Khan, Mr. Tanai Khiaonarong, Majid Malaika, Mr. Hunter K Monroe, Nobu Sugimoto, Hervé Tourpe, and Peter Zhou
This paper examines key considerations around central bank digital currency (CBDC) for use by the general public, based on a comprehensive review of recent research, central bank experiments, and ongoing discussions among stakeholders. It looks at the reasons why central banks are exploring retail CBDC issuance, policy and design considerations; legal, governance and regulatory perspectives; plus cybersecurity and other risk considerations. This paper makes a contribution to the CBDC literature by suggesting a structured framework to organize discussions on whether or not to issue CBDC, with an operational focus and a project management perspective.
International Monetary Fund

The Bahamas’s 2005 Article IV Consultation reports that the economic slowdown has contributed to deterioration in the fiscal accounts. The Bahamas is a small, open, and relatively wealthy economy, which is highly dependent on tourism from the United States and offshore financial activities. Offshore financial activities have developed rapidly since the early 1990s and account for roughly 15 percent of GDP. This has reduced the economy’s dependence on the tourism sector, which is focused on the higher end of the U.S. market but still accounts for one-fourth of GDP.