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Mr. Marco Pani and Mohamed El Harrak
This paper analyzes expenditure composition and economic development in Benin. It addresses some specific issues on the basis of a stylized model of the Beninese economy that highlights the tradeoff between expenditure on wages and investment. The model takes into account specific characteristics of the Beninese economy, including the large share of agriculture in employment and GDP, the large number of urban unemployed engaged in precarious informal sector activities, and the strong influence of labor unions in the formal labor market concentrated in the urban areas.
Mr. Marco Pani and Mohamed El Harrak
Cette étude analyse la répartition des dépenses et le développement économique au Bénin. Elle se penche sur des questions spécifiques en s'appuyant sur un modèle stylisé de l'économie béninoise qui met en avant les arbitrages nécessaires entre masse salariale et investissement. Ce modèle tient compte de caractéristiques propres à l'économie béninoise, telles que le rôle important que joue l'agriculture dans l'emploi et dans le PIB, le grand nombre de chômeurs citadins qui, pour survivre, se tournent vers les activités précaires dans le secteur informel, et la forte influence des syndicats sur le marché du travail officiel concentré dans les zones urbaines.
Charlotte J. Lundgren
Cette étude analyse l’impact de la politique salariale de la fonction publique au Bénin sur la viabilité des finances publiques et de la dette à moyen et long terme. Elle aboutit principalement à la conclusion suivante : si la masse salariale continue d’augmenter au même rythme que par le passé récent, elle compromettra la viabilité des finances publiques et de la dette à moyen et long terme en générant des déficits excessifs ou en évinçant l’investissement public générateur de croissance. L’étude montre qu’une politique financière guidée par des objectifs de maintien de la viabilité de la dette, tenant compte de la croissance démographique et axée sur les Objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement, ne laissera que peu d’espace pour une hausse des salaires dans la fonction publique. Maîtriser l’augmentation de la masse salariale pour préserver la viabilité budgétaire n’est qu’une première étape dans l’objectif plus large des autorités de réforme de la fonction publique.
Mr. Peter S. Heller and Mr. Alan A. Tait

This paper presents a review of the principal issues emerging from an IMF Conference held in March 1983. The special drawing right has been conceived in the 1960s and has been formally provided in the first amendment to the Articles of Agreement of the IMF, which took effect in 1969. Upon the abandonment of the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchange rates and the coming of freedom for the IMF members to adopt the exchange arrangements of their choice, a lack of discipline has been felt in the international monetary system.

International Monetary Fund

Performance under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) program has been mixed. The revenue slippage was addressed partially with corrective actions. IMF staff supports the authorities' request for a waiver of a missed performance criterion and recommends the completion of the first review. The collapse of a number of unauthorized microfinance institutions has not had a measurable impact on the financial sector. Ex post assessment of performance under the 2005–09 poverty reduction and growth facility program highlighted progress in macroeconomic stabilization but weaknesses in growth performance.

International Monetary Fund

Despite severe economic, political, and natural setbacks in Benin in 2010, its economic growth has accelerated in 2011. The Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has appreciated Benin’s economic performance under the program supported by the Extended Credit Facility (ECF). Based on the satisfactory performance and strong policy commitments, the Executive Board has granted a waiver for Benin. Directors have emphasized that a prudent fiscal policy is essential to preserve macroeconomic stability.

International Monetary Fund

This papers discusses Benin’s third review under the Extended Credit Facility Arrangement. The re-election of the President and the regained majority in Parliament have provided a window of opportunity for reforms. All performance criteria and most quantitative targets have been met, but progress in implementing structural reforms was mixed. The introduction of critical customs reforms met with strong initial resistance, leading to a sharp fall in customs revenue in the second half of 2011. The financial system remains sound, but supervision needs to be strengthened.

International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix examines some aspects of the civil service reform in Benin. It describes the main features of the promotion and compensation system currently in place; assesses the early efforts at reforming the civil service; and examines the main measures envisaged for 1998–2001. The paper assesses the impact of savings and loan associations on financial intermediation. It reviews the development of savings and loan associations in Benin, with particular focus on Federation of Rural Savings and Loan Cooperatives (FECECAM) because of its leading role in the system.
International Monetary Fund
Following satisfactory economic and financial performance under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility-supported program, performance was mixed. Benin should pursue a prudent debt-management policy with the support of the newly created debt committee. Implementation of the structural reform agenda is of critical importance for achieving the objectives of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. Strengthening of the financial sector and maintaining external debt on a sustainable path is needed in Benin. Risks to the medium-term program remain, but they are manageable.
International Monetary Fund
This paper assesses Benin’s 2002 Article IV Consultation, Third Review Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF), and Requests for an Extension of the PRGF Arrangement and for an Additional Interim Assistance Under the Enhanced Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC). Macroeconomic performance remained broadly in line with the objectives of the PRGF-supported program in 2001. All performance criteria and structural benchmarks for end-December 2001 were met, except the benchmark on the adoption of an action plan for the privatization of the state-controlled bank.