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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

At the UN’s Monterrey Summit in March 2002, heads of state and government agreed to broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries and economies in transition in international decision making and norm setting. But five years later, it is clear that the reform of the IMF’s governance—which encompasses, among other things, quotas, voting rights, and voice—has progressed rather slowly. This situation urgently needs to be turned around, as recognized by the International Monetary and Financial Committee, which regularly reviews progress on the Monterrey consensus. Its April 2006 communiqué stated that the IMF’s effectiveness and credibility as a cooperative institution must be safeguarded and its governance further enhanced, emphasizing the importance of fair voice and representation for all members.

International Monetary Fund
Although Afghanistan has made significant gains over the years, vulnerabilities remain. The economic program Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS) has been developed to sustain democracy, reduce poverty, and improve growth. ANDS, an important milestone in the rebuilding and development of Afghanistan, serves as its Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) and uses the pillars, principles, and benchmarks of the Afghanistan Compact as a foundation to achieve its MDGs. It has given high priority to the security sector for implementing security policies and strategies and also for building an Afghan National Army for the country's security.
International Monetary Fund
Afghanistan is one of the poorest countries in the world and, after decades of ongoing conflicts and strife, it is still at an early stage of developing its legal and institutional framework. Measures have been taken to fight crime, including financial crime. Smuggling and fraud are other major sources of illegal funds. In addition, terrorism and its financing remain a major concern. A framework has been established to allow for international mutual legal assistance but it falls short of the standard and is rarely used.
Mr. Mohamed A. El-Erian and Mr. Manmohan S. Kumar
Mobilization of national saving is an important determinant of investment and growth. It assumed greater importance in the case of the Iranian economy, given the difficult external environment. This paper discusses the recent saving performance of the Iranian economy, particularly in relation to investment needs. Following a quantitative evaluation of the determinants of saving, the paper reviews the main implications for domestic economic policies in the period ahead.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

The IMF has approved a three-year Policy Support Instrument (PSI) for Tanzania, the fourth developing country—all of which are African—to enter into such an agreement with the Fund since PSIs were introduced 16 months ago. PSIs are designed for low-income countries that don’t need, or don’t want, financial assistance from the IMF, but do want the Fund to endorse their economic policies, give them advice, and monitor their performance. The instruments are also a signal to donor countries, multilateral development banks, and the markets that a country’s macroeconomic policies have been discussed with the IMF.