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Luis I. Jacome H., Mr. Yan Carriere-Swallow, Mr. Hamid Faruqee, and Mr. Krishna Srinivasan


In the wake of the 2008–09 global financial crisis, central banking and monetary policy in many corners of the world came under intense pressure and entered unchartered waters. The breadth and scale of central bank operations have been modified or expanded in unprecedented and even unimaginable ways given the circumstances. Additionally, a fundamental rethinking of central banking and its policy frameworks has been taking place. This volume reflects a multilateral effort to help close the gap in our knowledge in meeting the critical challenges presented by these significant changes, in particular, those confronting central banks in Latin America. The volume’s first section provides a panoramic overview of the policy progress made to date and the challenges that lie ahead. The related issue of spillovers and monetary independence is taken up more fully in the next section. The final section presents chapters that reexamine macroprudential and monetary policies and policy frameworks from the perspective of central bank staff members from the region.

International Monetary Fund

This paper discusses key findings of the Review Under the Flexible Credit Line (FCL) for Colombia. The FCL arrangement has provided Colombia an additional coverage against adverse external shocks, in the context of strong monetary and fiscal policies. Colombia’s strong institutional and policy frameworks have created the scope to support domestic demand with prudently expansionary macroeconomic policies. The resources from the FCL have helped to bolster confidence in the country’s ability to withstand additional external shocks. In the IMF staff’s view, Colombia continues to fully meet the FCL qualification criteria.

Patrick O’Hagan

Colombia is working towards compiling quarterly sectoral accounts and balance sheets to support domestic policymaking by gaining a much deeper understanding of the interrelationship between the real sector accounts and the financial accounts, and the vulnerabilities that may reside in specific sectors as sources for spillovers to other sectors. Sectoral accounts and balance sheets are critical to help detect systemic risks, vulnerabilities, and possible contagion from economic shocks. The authorities continued to acknowledge the additional benefit from work in this area as it moves towards subscription to the IMF’s Special Data Dissemination Standard Plus and continued accession negotiations with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. The priority is first on establishing timely annual integrated estimates between the National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE) and the BRC, followed by quarterly estimates.

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

Colombia’s economy has been resilient to the adverse global shocks of recent years. Inflation has been subdued, credit growth has eased, and financial soundness indicators are strong. The strong balance of payments continues to put upward pressure on the Colombian peso. In 2013, growth is expected to rise and inflation to remain on target. Short-term risks to the outlook continue to be tilted to the downside. The central bank’s intervention policy is geared at containing exchange rate volatility and strengthening external buffers.