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International Monetary Fund, World Bank, International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, &, Review Department, International Monetary Fund. African Dept., International Monetary Fund. Legal Dept., International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept., and International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

This paper provides a proposal to incorporate the Core Principles for Islamic Finance Regulation (Banking Sector) issued by the Islamic Financial Services Board

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The purpose of the missions of Phase I was to develop a functional central bank, including establishing a modern banking supervisory regime. Especially, MCM provided TA missions under the Phase I that have focused on operationalizing banking license capacity, development of on and offsite supervisory capability, and other relevant areas.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper summarizes the stress tests (ST) undertaken for the Malaysian banking system as part of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP). All banks were subject to solvency, liquidity and contagion tests in the macroeconomic stress testing set-up. The solvency tests assessed the resilience of the Malaysian banking system under three macroeconomic scenarios from 2012 to 2016. Single year bottom up (BU) sensitivity tests for Malaysian banks covered various single-factor credit and market risk shocks. A multi-factor BU sensitivity liquidity test was also carried out by participating banks and extended to not only key onshore banks but covered some Labuan entities and overseas subsidiaries. The findings suggest that the onshore banking system in Malaysia has substantial capital buffers to absorb credit losses on its credit risk exposures. Conventional banks can benefit from buffers provided by significant income as a first line of defense against credit losses. Some larger domestic banks benefit from income in terms of strong revenues from domestic operations as well as potential income from overseas operations.
Tahsin Saadi Sedik and Tao Sun
This paper analyzes the experiences of emerging market economies (EMEs) that have liberalized capital flows over the past 15 years with respect to macroeconomic performance and risks to financial stability. The results of the panel data regressions indicate that greater openness to capital flows is associated with higher growth, gross capital flows, and equity returns and with lower inflation and bank capital adequacy ratios. The effects vary depending on thresholds. As a potential application of these findings, the paper explores the possible effects of liberalization on China by applying the coefficients of explanatory variables to the corresponding variables of China in 2012–16.
Aledjandro Lopez Mejia, Suliman Aljabrin, Rachid Awad, Mr. Mohamed Norat, and Mr. In W Song
This paper aims at developing a better understanding of Islamic banking (IB) and providing policy recommendations to enhance the supervision of Islamic banks (IBs). It points out and discusses similarities and differences of IBs with conventional banks (CBs) and reviews whether the IBs are more stable than CBs. Given the risks faced by IBs, the paper concludes that they need a legal, corporate and regulatory framework as much as CB does. The paper also argues that it is important to ensure operational independence of the supervisory agency, which has to be supported by adequate resources, a sound legal framework, a well designed governance structure, and robust accountability practices.
Mr. Ashoka Mody and Mr. Abdul d Abiad
Despite stops, gaps, and reversals, financial reforms advanced worldwide in the last quarter century. Using a new index of financial liberalization, we conclude that influential events shook the status quo, inducing both reforms and reversals, while learning, more so than ideology and country structure, shaped and sustained widespread reforms. Among shocks, a decline in global interest rates and balance of payments crises strengthened reformers; banking crises were associated with reversals, while new governments brought about both reforms and reversals. Learning occurred domestically-initial reforms raised the likelihood of further reforms-and through observing regional reform leaders. Among structural features, greater openness to trade appears to have increased the pace of financial reform.
Mr. In W Song and Carel Oosthuizen
The growing presence of Islamic banking needs to be accompanied by the development of effective regulation and supervision. This paper examines the results of the survey conducted by the International Monetary Fund to document international experiences and country practices related to legal and prudential frameworks governing Islamic banking activities. Although a number of countries have made considerable progress in creating legal, regulatory, and supervisory frameworks that accommodate Islamic banking, there are substantial differences. This paper also identifies a number of challenges faced by regulatory and supervisory agencies regarding Islamic banking.
Mr. Heiko Hesse and Mr. Tigran Poghosyan
This paper analyzes the relationship between oil price shocks and bank profitability. Using data on 145 banks in 11 oil-exporting MENA countries for 1994-2008, we test hypotheses of direct and indirect effects of oil price shocks on bank profitability. Our results indicate that oil price shocks have indirect effect on bank profitability, channeled through country-specific macroeconomic and institutional variables, while the direct effect is insignificant. Investment banks appear to be the most affected ones compared to Islamic and commercial banks. Our findings highlight systemic implications of oil price shocks on bank performance and underscore their importance for macroprudential regulation purposes in MENA countries.