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International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper examines competitiveness and the equilibrium real exchange rate for Ghana. It estimates a behavioral equilibrium exchange rate model for Ghana to establish to what extent real effective exchange rate (REER) movements have been driven by an adjustment to its equilibrium values, consistent with changing fundamentals. The paper discusses measures of Ghana’s external competitiveness other than the gap between the actual and the estimated equilibrium REER. Achievements, challenges, and priorities in the areas of public financial management, wage policy, tax administration, and tax policy are also described in detail.

Mr. Paul R Masson
Globalization has become the focus for a wide range of protests against various features of the world economy. This paper aims to give a concise summary of the economic dimensions of globalization, while leaving to one side other aspects—such as cultural, environmental, or political ones—that are beyond the scope of the IMF. Periods of increased globalization have tended to be associated with technological innovations that reduce transportation and communications costs and with generally rising standards of living. Moreover, countries that have embraced openness to the rest of the world have done better than those that have not. Nevertheless, globalization may also be associated with increased inequality and volatility, which may justify strengthening domestic safety nets and financial supervision and regulation, and enhancing international economic policy coordination. The IMF helps to ensure economic gains from globalization by encouraging trade liberalization, reducing countries’ vulnerability to crises, lending to them when they are in difficulty, and assisting them in putting in place structural reforms that help reduce poverty.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
On September 1, 2001, Anne Krueger took up the reins as the IMF’s First Deputy Managing Director. She brought with her a wealth of experience from the public and private sectors, including long stints in academia—most recently as an economics professor at Stanford University—and, from 1982 to 1986, as the World Bank’s Vice President for Economics and Research. She is a Distinguished Fellow and past President ofthe American Economic Association.
Vito Amendolagine, Mr. Andrea F Presbitero, Roberta Rabellotti, Marco Sanfilippo, and Adnan Seric
The local sourcing of intermediate products is one the main channels for foreign direct investment (FDI) spillovers. This paper investigates whether and how participation and positioning in the global value chains (GVCs) of host countries is associated to local sourcing by foreign investors. Matching two firm-level data sets of 19 Sub-Saharan African countries and Vietnam to country-sector level measures of GVC involvement, we find that more intense GVC participation and upstream specialization are associated to a higher share of inputs sourced locally by foreign investors. These effects are larger in countries with stronger rule of law and better education.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

This paper focuses on overcoming the challenges of globalization. The paper highlights that globalization has the potential to make all individuals better off. However, there is no assurance that all individuals will be better off or that all changes will be positive. The studies that show that, on average, poverty declines with economic growth are encouraging. But averages hide the negative impact on individual countries and on certain groups. In addition, there are important questions about the relationships between economic policies and outcomes, especially the impact of macroeconomic and structural reform policies on poverty.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

IMF Managing Director Michel Camdessus, World Bank President James D. Wolfensohn, and World Trade Organization (WTO) Director-General Mike Moore issued a joint statement to the Third WTO Ministerial Conference in Seattle, Washington, on November 30. Camdessus also addressed the conference separately. Extracts from the joint statement, issued as News Brief 99/78, and Camdessus’s statement follow.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

16–20 48th Annual Meeting of the Inter-American Development Bank and the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Inter-American Investment Corporation, Guatemala City, Guatemala