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Mr. Enrique A Gelbard, Corinne Deléchat, Ms. Ejona Fuli, Mr. Mumtaz Hussain, Mr. Ulrich Jacoby, Mrs. Dafina Glaser, Mr. Marco Pani, Mr. Gustavo Ramirez, and Rui Xu
Ce document analyse la persistance de la fragilité dans certains pays d'Afrique subsaharienne et la coexistence de multiples dimensions de la faiblesse de l'État. L'étude passe également en revue les caractéristiques de la fragilité, et ses liens avec les conflits et l'action internationale en faveur des états fragiles, avant de dresser un état des lieux de la situation et des domaines dans lesquels la résilience a progressé. Elle s'intéresse également au rôle des politiques et institutions budgétaires, et analyse les phases d'accélération et de ralentissement de la croissance. Une analyse du cas de sept pays précise certain des principaux facteurs en jeu et illustre la diversité des voies suivies, en soulignant l'importance de l'échelonnement des réformes. Enfin, l'étude se termine par une synthèse des principaux résultats et conséquences pratiques.
Hites Ahir, Hendre Garbers, Mattia Coppo, Mr. Giovanni Melina, Mr. Futoshi Narita, Ms. Filiz D Unsal, Vivian Malta, Xin Tang, Daniel Gurara, Luis-Felipe Zanna, Linda G. Venable, Mr. Kangni R Kpodar, and Mr. Chris Papageorgiou
Despite strong economic growth since 2000, many low-income countries (LICs) still face numerous macroeconomic challenges, even prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the deceleration in real GDP growth during the 2008 global financial crisis, LICs on average saw 4.5 percent of real GDP growth during 2000 to 2014, making progress in economic convergence toward higher-income countries. However, the commodity price collapse in 2014–15 hit many commodity-exporting LICs and highlighted their vulnerabilities due to the limited extent of economic diversification. Furthermore, LICs are currently facing a crisis like no other—COVID-19, which requires careful policymaking to save lives and livelihoods in LICs, informed by policy debate and thoughtful research tailored to the COVID-19 situation. There are also other challenges beyond COVID-19, such as climate change, high levels of public debt burdens, and persistent structural issues.
Mr. Enrique A Gelbard, Corinne Deléchat, Ms. Ejona Fuli, Mr. Mumtaz Hussain, Mr. Ulrich Jacoby, Mrs. Dafina Glaser, Mr. Marco Pani, Mr. Gustavo Ramirez, and Rui Xu
This paper analyzes the persistence of fragility in some sub-Saharan African states and the multiple dimensions of state weakness that are simultaneously at play. This study also provides an overview of the analytics of fragility, conflict, and international engagement with fragile states before turning to an assessment of the current state of affairs and the areas in which there has been progress in building resilience. The paper also looks at the role of fiscal policies and institutions and analyzes growth accelerations and decelerations. Seven country case studies help identify more concretely some key factors at play, and the diversity of paths followed, with an emphasis on the sequencing of reforms. The paper concludes with a summary of the main findings and policy implications.
International Monetary Fund
The East African Community (EAC) countries (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Rwanda) have been affected by the global financial crisis and global recession. The fall in global demand and inflows and tighter liquidity conditions abroad affected the countries in this region as elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. But how hard have countries in the EAC been hit? Have the spillovers from the global crisis affected countries in the region as much as other countries in the sub-Saharan region? Have the transmission channels or magnitudes of the spillovers been different across EAC countries? How can these countries return quickly to a path of sustained high growth? What is the role for policy? Would acceleration of regional integration and policy coordination help achieve this goal? Would it make the region less susceptible to shocks? This paper focus on the EAC countries and attempts to address these questions.
International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office


The Independent Evaluation Office (IEO) evaluation on International Reserves: IMF Concerns and Country Perspectives was discussed by the Board in December 2012. This evaluation examined the IMF’s analysis of the effect of reserves on the stability of the international monetary system and its advice on reserve adequacy assessments in the context of bilateral surveillance. In the multilateral context, the evaluation acknowledged the IMF’s broader work stream on the international monetary system but noted that this work had not sufficiently informed the analysis and recommendations regarding reserves. The IEO evaluation of The Role of the IMF as Trusted Advisor was discussed by the Board in February 2013. This evaluation found that perceptions of the IMF had improved, but that they varied markedly by region and country type. Recognizing that there will always be an inherent tension between the IMF’s roles as a global watchdog and as a trusted advisor to member country authorities, the evaluation report explored how the IMF could sustain the more positive image it had achieved in the aftermath of the recent global crisis. The evaluation found that among key challenges facing the IMF were improving the value added and relevance of IMF advice and overcoming the perception of a lack of even-handedness.

International Monetary Fund

Satisfactory implementation of the economic program supported by the Policy Support Instrument has helped Rwanda during the global economic downturn. The program focuses on maintaining a sustainable fiscal position; strengthening monetary and exchange rate policies; and supporting growth with structural reforms to diversify the export base and improve the business environment. The authorities are committed to assess the inflation to safeguard the gains made in macroeconomic stability that currently underpin the economic recovery. Executive Directors emphasized the need to maintain macroeconomic stability to achieve sustainable growth.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Growth in 2015 has been stronger than expected. Growth was driven by strong activity in agriculture, construction, and services, with the projection for the year increased from 6.5 to 7.0 percent. Inflation remains well contained, although the monetary stance remains accommodative, with higher than expected credit growth. Fiscal policy has been broadly in line with expectations. Recent household survey results show good progress in poverty reduction. However, the outlook for 2016 is darker. An external shock is currently unfolding: mining exports have been almost halved in recent months, due to lower prices and demand in export markets. Combined with US dollar appreciation, this has put strong downward pressure on the Rwandan franc, and prompted a drawdown of international reserves by the banking system. Deterioration of the current account in 2015 is expected to continue in 2016, including due to public infrastructure imports for the Kigali convention center and expansion of RwandAir's fleet.