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International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Abstract

The intrinsic links between climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic have elevated global calls for policymakers to take immediate action on both fronts. Fiscal stimulus supporting recovery from the pandemic can be designed to simultaneously address climate change. In turn, this could help reduce the spread of future pandemics as climate change is a threat multiplier for pandemics. Destruction of the environment and biodiversity makes pandemics more likely while pollution and other man-made factors driving climate change weaken the health of human beings, raising their vulnerability to viruses and other diseases.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Abstract

Every second, the region has averaged 106 new internet users.1 This fast-paced digital revolution holds the promise of transforming economies and people’s lives. It takes on added importance as countries across the region grapple with the unprecedented health and socio-economic fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic. All policy levers are being deployed to protect lives and livelihoods. Digital solutions have helped to provide more resilience and allowed for rapid, flexible, and inclusive policy responses to the pandemic.

International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Abstract

The following remarks by the Acting Chair were made at the conclusion of the Executive Board’s discussion of the World Economic Outlook on March 21, 2008.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Abstract

Prepared by staff from the Monetary and Capital Markets Department (in consultation with other departments): The authors of this chapter are Anna Ilyina (Division Chief), Evan Papageorgiou (Deputy Division Chief), Sergei Antoshin, Yingyuan Chen, Fabio Cortes, Rohit Goel, Phakawa Jeasakul, Sanjay Hazarika, Kelly Eckhold, Frank Hespeler, Henry Hoyle, Piyusha Khot, Sheheryar Malik, Thomas Piontek, Akihiko Yokoyama, and Xingmi Zheng, under the guidance of Fabio Natalucci (Deputy Director). Magally Bernal and Andre Vasquez were responsible for word processing and the production of this report.

International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Abstract

The global expansion is losing speed in the face of a major financial crisis. The slowdown has been greatest in the advanced economies, particularly in the United States, where the housing market correction continues to exacerbate financial stress. The emerging and developing economies have so far been less affected by financial market turbulence and have continued to grow at a rapid pace, led by China and India, although activity is beginning to moderate in some countries. In the baseline, the U.S. economy will tip into a mild recession in 2008 as a result of mutually reinforcing housing and financial market cycles, with only a gradual recovery in 2009, reflecting the time needed to resolve underlying balance sheet strains. Activity in the other advanced economies will be sluggish in both 2008 and 2009 in the face of trade and financial spillovers. Growth in the emerging and developing economies is also projected to slow, although it should remain above long-term trends in all regions. Risks to the global projections are tilted to the downside, especially those related to the possibility of a full-blown credit crunch, while emerging and developing economies will not be insulated from a serious downturn in the advanced economies. Against this background, policymakers in the advanced economies must continue to grapple with the task of restoring stability to housing and financial markets while addressing downside risks to growth, without jeopardizing inflation performance or longer-term policy goals. Many emerging and developing economies still face the challenge of avoiding overheating or any buildup in vulnerabilities, but policymakers should be ready to respond judiciously to a deteriorating external environment.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Abstract

Prepared by staff from the Monetary and Capital Markets Department (in consultation with other departments): The authors of this chapter are Dimitris Drakopoulos, Rohit Goel, Evan Papageorgiou (team leader), Dmitri Petrov, Patrick Schneider, Can Sever, and Jef Williams, under the guidance of Fabio Natalucci and Anna Ilyina. Magally Bernal and Andre Vasquez were responsible for word processing and the production of this report.

International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Abstract

As discussed in Chapter 1, a global slowdown in activity, led by a sharp downturn in the United States and the spreading crisis in financial markets, will create more difficult external conditions for all regions of the world. This chapter examines in more detail how different regions are likely to fare in this environment and the policy challenges that are likely to arise.1

International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

Abstract

The authors of this chapter are Francesca Caselli, Francesco Grigoli (co-lead), Weicheng Lian, and Damiano Sandri (co-lead), with support from Jungjin Lee and Xiaohui Sun. The chapter benefited from insightful comments by Yuriy Gorodnichenko and internal seminar participants.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Abstract

The authors of this chapter are Andrea Deghi, Ken Zhi Gan, Tom Piontek, Dulani Seneviratne, Tomohiro Tsuruga, and Jérôme Vandenbussche (team leader), with contributions from Germán Villegas Bauer, under the guidance of Fabio Natalucci and Mahvash Qureshi. Jeremy Stein served as an expert advisor.