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International Monetary Fund
In this study, the following are discussed: nominal GDP by economic activity and expenditure, quarterly nominal GDP by economic activity and expenditure, composition of nominal GDP by economic activity and expenditure, quarterly composition of nominal GDP by economic activity and expenditure, real GDP by economic activity and expenditure, quarterly real GDP by economic activity and expenditure, growth in real GDP by economic activity and expenditure, growth in quarterly real GDP by economic activity and expenditure, oil and gas production and sales, and government and private sector employment.
International Monetary Fund
Kuwait faced the global financial crisis from a position of strength, owing to expansionary fiscal stance. The economy is expected to grow steadily over the medium term as Kuwait continues to implement the development plan and global recovery supports demand for oil. The near-term macroeconomic policy mix is adequate. The development plan (DP) implementation should be managed carefully. The financial situation of many investment companies remains precarious. Significant progress was made in the implementation of the update recommendations, but further steps are warranted.
Sayuri Shirai
This paper provides a theoretical model to address the issue of how industrialization affects the structure of international trade. Considering both horizontal and vertical product differentiation, the model shows that intra-industry trade increases when product quality improvement emerges in a developing country and when a difference in relative factor endowments between a developed and a developing countries shrinks. To promote understanding of the conclusions of the model, the paper also uses actual trade data between Japan and Indonesia and between Japan and Korea.
Delphine Prady and Mouhamadou Sy
This paper documents the additional spending that is required for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to achieve meaningful progress in SDGs by 2030. Benin and Rwanda are presented in detail through case studies. The main lessons are: i) average additional spending across SSA is significant, at 19 percent of GDP in 2030; ii) countries must prioritize their development objectives according to their capacity to deliver satisfactory outcomes, iii) financing strategies should articulate multiple sources given the scale of additional spending, and iv) strong national ownership of SDGs is key and should be reflected in long-term development plans and medium-term policy commitments.
George B. Baldwin

Although business men in developing countries may justifiably feel that they are breaking new ground in advancing its industrialization, as a group they follow a predictable pattern of activity.

International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper on Kuwait reviews its economic development strategy and uses a variety of analytical methods to highlight Kuwait’s policy challenges and their effectiveness. Kuwait has accumulated large fiscal surpluses, enabling it to build up a sizable asset position for future generations. The fiscal position is also expected to remain comfortable over the medium term, but the recent rapid increase in expenditures raises doubts about the sustainability of the current fiscal stance over the longer term.

Monica C. Gruder

The thirty-fourth Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors of the World Bank, held in Belgrade, reflected efforts to learn from the development experience of the 1970s with a view to meeting the needs of the developing countries in the next decade. This article reports on the meeting.