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Israel Fainboim Yaker and Mr. Ian Lienert
Los departamentos del FMI elaboran Notas Técnicas y Manuales para ampliar la divulgación de su asesoramiento en materia de asistencia técnica. Estos documentos presentan recomendaciones y pautas generales, algunas extraídas de informes de asistencia técnica inéditos, a un público más amplio. El lanzamiento de esta nueva serie fue en agosto de 2009.
Mr. Sandeep Saxena and Sami Ylaoutinen
Virements are useful instruments of budget flexibility. If carried out transparently and within accepted limits, virements can promote expenditure efficiency. Large, unregulated virements can undermine budget credibility and the budget’s relevance as principal policy and financial planning instrument. This note defines virements, clarifies their purpose, and specifies what general and country-specific considerations should guide the design of a virement framework. The note argues that countries should design virement policies maintaining balance between their budget flexibility and accountability needs, and keeping in view the legal-cultural environment and the state of development of their public financial management.
Sailendra Pattanayak and Julie Patricia Cooper
Los principales temas tratados en esta Nota Técnica de Orientación (TNM) son los siguientes: • Se analizan la finalidad de un plan de cuentas y su importancia en la gestión financiera pública. • Se analizan las necesidades de los actores interesados en un marco típico de gestión financiera pública que deben reflejarse en un plan de cuentas • Se analiza la función del plan de cuentas en la contabilidad presupuestaria y financiera. • Se analiza la relación entre el plan de cuentas y los sistemas integrados de información sobre gestión financiera (SIIGF). • Se explican los pasos fundamentales para identificar los requerimientos de datos y estructuras para elaborar un plan de cuentas.
Sailendra Pattanayak and Julie Patricia Cooper
This technical note and manual (TNM) addresses the following main issues: • Discusses the purpose of a chart of accounts and its importance in public financial management • Discusses stakeholder needs in a typical public financial management framework that need to be reflected in a chart of accounts • Discusses the role of chart of accounts in budgetary and financial accounting • Discusses the relation between the chart of accounts and IFMIS • Explains key steps for identifying data requirements and structures for developing a chart of accounts
Sailendra Pattanayak
This paper defines and explains key stages of the government expenditure chain and describes the controls applied at each stage, including their objectives and key features as well as centralized vs. decentralized approaches in application of those controls. The paper also examines the influence of different administrative traditions on types of expenditure controls, including the authority and responsibility of various institutional actors. Finally, it discusses typical weaknesses/problems associated with different traditions of expenditure control and suggests specific measures for strengthening the control framework. While providing examples of expenditure control practices from more than 32 countries, the paper points out that more than two-thirds of the 85 low and middle income countries covered by the publicly available Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) assessments have weak systems of expenditure control that are also associated with higher levels of expenditure arrears and a lack of budget credibility. This paper will help public financial management practitioners to evaluate budget execution systems and identify priorities for strengthening expenditure controls. It will also usefully guide technical assistance work related to modernization of government budget execution and expenditure control systems, including the design and implementation of IT-based financial management information systems.
Mr. Ian Lienert
This paper examines the role of the legislature in budget processes. The paper highlights that for promoting good governance and fiscal transparency, the legislature’s active engagement in the budget process is essential. When fiscal policies and medium-term budgetary objectives are debated in parliament, budget strategies and policies are “owned” more widely. However, more active participation by the legislature runs the risk that fiscal discipline deteriorates. In countries where the legislature has unrestrained budget amendment authority, parliament is prone to introduce changes that increase spending or reduce taxes.
Ms. Suzanne Flynn, Delphine Moretti, and Joe Cavanagh
This technical note and manual (TNM) explains what accrual accounting means for the public sector and discusses current trends in moving from cash to accrual accounting. It outlines factors governments should consider in preparing for the move and sequencing of the transition. The note recognizes that governments considering accounting reforms will have different starting points across the public sector, different objectives, and varying coverage of the existing financial statements, it therefore recommends that governments consider each of these, and the materiality of stocks, flows and entities outside of government accounts when planning reforms and design the sequencing and stages involved accordingly. Building on international experiences, the note proposes four possible phases for progressively increasing the financial operations reported in the balance sheet and operating statement, with the ultimate aim of including all institutional units under the effective control of government in fiscal reports.