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International Monetary Fund

This paper examines economic developments and policies in Canada during 1990–95. Spurred by the robust growth in the United States and the easing of monetary conditions between 1991 and 1993, economic growth in Canada continued to strengthen during 1994. Real GDP grew by 4.5 percent in 1994 after growing by 2.2 percent in 1993 and 0.6 percent in 1992. Economic growth in 1994 was led by exports and investment in machinery and equipment. However, growth was more broadly based in 1994; private consumption strengthened, and there was a rebound in residential and nonresidential construction.

International Monetary Fund. Communications Department
Finance and Development
International Monetary Fund. Communications Department
This paper focuses on overcoming fears of technology and globalization means rethinking the rights and obligations of citizenship. While the causes of our discontent vary, they all point to the need to revitalize politics, economics, and social contract to provide citizens with a greater sense of security and confidence in the face of impending changes. The backlash highlights the need for a new social contract, one that adapts to changed economic realities and better manages the social implications of globalization. The social contract includes the payment of taxes in exchange for public goods, and the way that society looks after the old, the young, the infirm, and those who have fallen on hard times. Countries with greater social mobility grow faster because they more effectively match people to the right jobs. Another way to address inequality would be to put a floor under incomes, which would help ensure that even low-wage earners can enjoy a reasonable standard of living.
International Monetary Fund. Communications Department
Finance and Development
International Monetary Fund. Communications Department
Finance and Development
International Monetary Fund. Communications Department
Finance and Development
International Monetary Fund. Communications Department
Finance and Development
International Monetary Fund
This paper provides an overview of recent economic developments in Georgia. The country has made significant, but incomplete, progress toward establishing the rule of law. The rapid accumulation of wage and social transfers arrears is one of the factors of the worsening poverty. The banking sector reforms have started to yield positive results, particularly with regard to banking system consolidation. The energy sector exchange, trade and payments systems, tax summary, and statistical data on the economic indices of Georgia are presented in the paper.
Mr. Ehtisham Ahmad, Ms. Mercedes Garcia-Escribano, José Antonio González Anaya, Mr. Ernesto Revilla, Mr. Giorgio Brosio, and Mr. Ben Lockwood
An equalization system ensures that subnational governments can provide similar level of public services at a comparable level of own tax-effort. This paper focuses on the importance of spending needs factors in the design of equalization transfers as well as special purpose transfers-and the role that this could have in setting the agenda for better accountability for recipient governments, illustrating both design and implementation questions with examples from Mexico. The paper also takes into account the difficult political economy constraints to reforming any system of transfers.