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International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

The Sixth Five Year Plan, as outlined in Bangladesh's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, targets strategic growth and employment. The medium-term macroeconomic framework plan entails the involvement of both the private and public sectors. Human resources development strategy programs reaching out to the poor and the vulnerable population, as well as environment, climate change, and disaster risk management, have been included in the plan. Managing regional disparities for shared growth and strategy for raising farm productivity and agricultural growth have been outlined. Diversifying exports and developing a dynamic manufacturing sector are all inclusive in the proposed plan.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

This paper highlights that despite severe limitations of resources, developing countries have made substantial progress during the past three decades in sending more children to school and in generally improving their education systems. Enrollment of children in schools at all levels has expanded at unprecedented rates. There has been a significant decline in the proportion of adults who are illiterate—from 44 percent in 1950 to 32 percent in 1975. Public expenditures for education have increased steadily in developing countries to reach roughly the same share of national product as in industrialized countries.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

This paper highlights that since its inception in 1956, the International Finance Corporation (IFC) has invested more than US$1.7 billion in nearly 300 enterprises in 62 developing countries in total projects costing about US$9 billion. The IFC is the affiliate of the World Bank, which has been given the specific task of furthering economic development by encouraging the growth of productive private enterprise in developing countries. The paper underscores that IFC plays an essentially catalytic role in generating investment funds from local and foreign sources.

Albert Waterston, David Williams, and Robert F. Skillings

• Singer, H. W., International Development: Growth and Change, New York, N.Y., U.S.A., McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964, xiv + 295 pp., $7.50; • Bhagwati, Jagdish, The Economics of Underdeveloped Countries, New York, N.Y., U.S.A., McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1966, 254 pp., $2.45; • Birmingham, W., and A. G. Ford (Eds.), Planning and Growth in Rich and Poor Countries, New York, N.Y., U.S.A., Frederick A. Praeger, 1966, 267 pp., $7.50; • Horowitz, Irving Louis, Three Worlds of Development: The Theory and Practice of International Stratification, New York, N.Y., U.S.A., Oxford University Press, 1966, xiv + 475 pp., $8.50; • Fryer, D. W., World Economic Development, New York, N.Y., U.S.A., McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1965, xi + 627 pp., $8.95; • Scott, Andrew M., with William A. Lucas and Trudi M. Lucas, Simulation and National Development, New York, N.Y., U.S.A., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1966, ix + 177 pp., $5.95.

William R. Cline

Commodity Boom: How Long Will It Last?" asks how economies will fare after the record-high prices of key raw materials posted in recent months, which build on dramatic increases from their lows of 2000. The lead article warns that the impact on headline inflation levels might persist throughout 2008, even without further commodity price hikes. It urges policymakers to ensure efficient functioning of market forces at the global level, and to move swiftly to protect the poorest. Another article addresses the effects of climate change on agriculture, warning that farm production will fall dramatically-especially in developing countries-if steps are not taken to curb carbon emissions. Other articles on this theme argue that policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions need not hobble economies, and that financial markets can help address climate change. "People in Economics" profiles John Taylor; "Picture This" says the global energy system is on an increasingly unsustainable path; "Country Focus" spotlights South Africa; and "Straight Talk" examines early warnings provided by credit derivatives. Also in this issue, articles examine China's increasing economic engagement with Africa, and the outsourcing of service jobs to other countries.

P.D. Henderson

Although its energy problems may have been highlighted in the period following the rise in oil prices, India’s difficulties in this field have older origins. The author, who has recently completed a book on the subject, profiles India’s energy industries and resources, and suggests ways of tackling problems in this field.

George B. Baldwin

Although business men in developing countries may justifiably feel that they are breaking new ground in advancing its industrialization, as a group they follow a predictable pattern of activity.

John Spears

The key to arresting current degradation of upland catchment areas lies in enabling farmers to establish appropriate farming practices combined with physical measures to check erosion and flooding. Reforestation is, in many situations, only a partial solution. A broader approach is needed.