The Sixth Five Year Plan, as outlined in Bangladesh's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, targets strategic growth and employment. The medium-term macroeconomic framework plan entails the involvement of both the private and public sectors. Human resources development strategy programs reaching out to the poor and the vulnerable population, as well as environment, climate change, and disaster risk management, have been included in the plan. Managing regional disparities for shared growth and strategy for raising farm productivity and agricultural growth have been outlined. Diversifying exports and developing a dynamic manufacturing sector are all inclusive in the proposed plan.
This paper provides estimates of output multipliers for spending in clean energy and biodiversity conservation, as well as for spending on non-ecofriendly energy and land use activities. Using a new international dataset, we find that every dollar spent on key carbon-neutral or carbon-sink activities can generate more than a dollar’s worth of economic activity. Although not all green and non-ecofriendly expenditures in the dataset are strictly comparable due to data limitations, estimated multipliers associated with spending on renewable and fossil fuel energy investment are comparable, and the former (1.1-1.5) are larger than the latter (0.5-0.6) with over 90 percent probability. These findings survive several robustness checks and lend support to bottom-up analyses arguing that stabilizing climate and reversing biodiversity loss are not at odds with continuing economic advances.
1.1 The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012—Central Framework (SEEA Central Framework) is a multipurpose conceptual framework that describes the interactions between the economy and the environment, and the stocks and changes in stocks of environmental assets.
2.1 The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework is a multipurpose conceptual framework for describing the interaction between the economy and the environment, and the stocks and changes in stocks of environmental assets. Utilizing a systems approach to organizing environmental and economic information, it covers, as completely as possible, the stocks and flows that are relevant to the analysis of environmental and economic issues.
3.1 An economy cannot function without using natural resources and other inputs from the environment and using the environment to absorb the unwanted by-products of economic production. Measuring the flows of natural inputs into and releases of residuals from the economy can therefore provide instructive information. This measurement is generally carried out using physical units of measure.
4.1 An important component of environmental-economic accounting is the recording of transactions in monetary terms between economic units that may be considered environmental. Generally, these transactions concern activity undertaken to preserve and protect the environment. Further, there are a range of transactions, such as taxes and subsidies, that reflect efforts by governments, on behalf of society, to influence the behaviour of producers and consumers with respect to the environment.
5.1 Assets are considered items of value to society. In economics, assets have long been defined as stores of value that, in many situations, also provide inputs to production processes. More recently, there has been consideration of the value inherent in the components of the environment and the inputs the environment provides to society in general and the economy in particular. The term “environmental asset” is used to denote the source of these inputs which may be measured in both physical and monetary terms.
6.1 Environmental and economic information is important in the assessment of a range of contemporary environmental and economic policy and research questions. Beyond the provision of relevant information, a primary motivation of the SEEA is the effective integration of the vast amount of environmental and economic data, and assistance with the integration of social data, such as demographic and labour statistics.
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European Community member states now face critical decisions on the design and implementation of monetary policy