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William Diamond

This paper describes the technical improvement in developing countries. It highlights that developing countries have relied heavily for their industrial development upon foreign enterprises as sources of technology and management systems. The paper underscores that through direct investment or under licensing arrangements, foreign corporations have supplied a vast array of industrial products and equipment and have exercised a major role in the design and construction of processing and manufacturing facilities in newly industrializing countries.

International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office

Abstract

1. The IEO obtained the views of three sets of participants in interactions between the IMF and its member countries. The evaluation team surveyed the authorities and civil society representatives across the membership, and also those IMF staff members who had interacted with authorities and others. The team drafted three separate questionnaires, and engaged Princeton Survey Research Associates International (PSRAI)—an independent survey research firm—to help design and administer the surveys.1

International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office

Abstract

1. As noted in the main report, the evaluation used three main sources of primary evidence—surveys, interviews, and internal documents. This background paper focuses on the internal documents. It has three sections. The first describes the documents themselves, as well as how they were obtained. The second sets out how the documents were used in the context of the evaluation’s work on the 49 sample countries, which covered the entire evaluation period. The third discusses the evaluation’s cross-country document review of selected issues in interactions, which focused on the last two years of the evaluation period.

International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office

Abstract

1. This document provides an overview of interview evidence for the evaluation of IMF interactions with member countries. It summarizes the number and type of interviews conducted; sets out the methodological approach to the interviews; and discusses particular issues that arose in the context of the interviews with members, as well as staff working with them, in different country groups.

International Monetary Fund. Independent Evaluation Office

Abstract

1. The IEO obtained the views of three sets of participants in interactions between the IMF and its member countries. The evaluation team surveyed the authorities and civil society representatives across the membership, and also those IMF staff members who had interacted with authorities and others. The team drafted three separate questionnaires, and engaged Princeton Survey Research Associates International (PSRAI)—an independent survey research firm—to help design and administer the surveys.1

International Monetary Fund

This 2009 Article IV Consultation highlights that Bhutan’s fiscal policy has been anchored by keeping current spending below domestic revenue. Bhutan’s large and volatile trade deficits have been offset by sizable foreign aid flows, resulting in a balance of payments (BOP) surplus and reserve accumulation. The BOP surplus has averaged about 8 percent of GDP over the last few years. Executive Directors have commended the authorities for the strong economic performance anchored by hydropower sector development, and supported by prudent economic management, firm donor support, and political stability.