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When Pakistan became an independent country a serious obstacle to rapid industrialization was an almost complete lack of industrial accountants. The author tells how a small group of men set out to create—with valuable aid from Canada—a new profession.
In a period when external financial aid to developing countries is increasing less rapidly than before, one question emerges ever more sharply: how can developing countries mobilize all possible domestic resources for financing their industrialization?
Mr. Jean-Claude Berthélemy and Mr. Ludvig Söderling
This paper examines past African growth experience and attempts to simulate future ones. In addition to more commonly used determinants of total factor productivity, a measure of the effect of labor reallocation and an index of economic diversification are constructed and included as factors for long-term growth. A simple model is constructed for the purpose of simulating growth scenarios up to the year 2020 for Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Tanzania, and Uganda. Even if one makes relatively optimistic assumptions, Africa is not likely to reach "Asian tiger" levels of growth. The results also suggest that growth will depend, to a large extent, on educational investments and productivity gains in agriculture.
Mr. Arvind Subramanian, Raghuram Rajan, Mr. Ioannis Tokatlidis, Ms. Kalpana Kochhar, and Mr. Utsav Kumar
India has followed an idiosyncratic pattern of development, certainly compared with other fast-growing Asian economies. While the importance of services rather than manufacturing is widely noted, within manufacturing India has emphasized skill-intensive rather than laborintensive manufacturing, and industries with higher-than-average scale. Some of these distinctive patterns existed prior to the beginning of economic reforms in the 1980s, and stem from the idiosyncratic policies adopted after India's independence. Using the growth of fastmoving Indian states as a guide, we conclude that India may not revert to the pattern followed by other countries, despite reforms that have removed some policy impediments that contributed to India's distinctive path.