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International Monetary Fund
This paper discusses detailed assessment of compliance with the Basel Core Principles for effective banking supervision for the Kingdom of the Netherlands—Aruba. Aruba’s offshore banking sector is small by international standards, with only two institutions registered. The mission also recommends that the Central Bank of Aruba (CBA) meet with management to better understand their plans for their Aruban operations and their financial results. Aruba remains open to foreign investment and migrant workers, who make up 40 percent of the population and have been key contributors to economic growth.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews findings of the Detailed Assessment of Italy’s Compliance with the Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision. The Italian banking system seems to exhibit a high degree of resilience to possible macroeconomic shocks, as supported by the evolution of some financial soundness indicators and by the results of various model simulations. Despite significant improvements over the last few years, the quality of banks’ loan portfolios remains moderate. Cost-cutting and restructuring remain key challenges for Italian banks, with several conjunctural factors putting pressures on costs and income.
International Monetary Fund
Banking supervision in South Africa has been effective in reducing the impact of the global financial crisis. The banks have remained profitable, and capital adequacy ratios have been maintained well above the regulatory minimum. The supervisory and regulatory framework has been strengthened substantially. A specific regulation dealing with country and transfer-risk regulation should be drafted. The registrar’s remedial powers in banks should be strengthened. The Bank Supervision Department should expand its expertise in specialized areas such as operational risk and countering the abuse of financial services.
International Monetary Fund
This technical note highlights the financial sector assessment program update of Austria with factual update for effective banking supervision. Financial sector regulation and supervision should be conducted in the general public interest. Although authorities have acted effectively in recent cases of major problems, it is recommended that, within the legal framework in place, a set of practical provisions and procedures be elaborated for an orderly exit in case of failures and other stress situations.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Detailed Assessment of Observance report specifies Base Core Principles (BCP) for effective banking supervision in Australia. An assessment of the effectiveness of banking supervision requires a review of the legal framework, and a detailed examination of the policies and practices of the institution(s) responsible for banking regulation and supervision. In line with the BCP methodology, the assessment focused on banking supervision and regulation in Australia and did not cover the specificities of regulation and supervision of other financial institutions. The assessment has made use of five categories to determine compliance: compliant; largely compliant, materially noncompliant, noncompliant, and non-applicable. The report insists that Australian Prudential Regulation Authority (APRA) should put more focus on assessing the various components of firms’ Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process and other firm-wide stress testing practices. A periodic more comprehensive assessment of banks’ risk management and governance frameworks will further enhance APRA’s supervisory approach.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
COVID-19 pandemic: The Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) work was conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, so this Technical Note (TN) does not assess the impact of the crisis or the recent crisis-related policy measures. Nonetheless, given the FSAP’s focus on vulnerabilities and policy frameworks, the findings and recommendations of the TN remain pertinent. The Danish Financial Supervisory Authority (DFSA) has improved standards in its oversight of banking and insurance sectors since the last FSAP. Nevertheless, risks persist, both in traditional forms, and new areas, such as cyber risk, AML, and innovative market entrants. This note, selects topics to meet evolving supervisory challenges and the expectation that the international supervisory standards themselves will likewise continue to rise.
International Monetary Fund
This report focuses on the effectiveness of the Japanese Financial Supervisory Authority (FSA) and the Bank of Japan in supervising and regulating the Japanese financial system during the March 2011 earthquake. The report also highlights Japan’s compliance with the Basel Core Principles (BCPs) for Effective Banking Supervision. Japan has introduced various improvement measures to its regulatory framework and has an operational set-up that largely complies with the norms of the BCP's. In general, the mandates for supervision are structured and FSA given a free hand on supervisory responsibilities.
International Monetary Fund
The major reforms undertaken in the Netherlands with the adoption of the Twin Peaks regulatory structure have ensured that the recommendations from the Basel Core Principles assessment have been acted upon. The legal and regulatory framework for banking supervision conforms to internationally accepted minimum standards. Executive Directors recommend that supervision has to be more “intrusive and conclusive,” and encourage greater use of formal enforcement powers. However, it is recommended that the allocation of supervisory resources according to the potential systemic impact of regulated firms be evaluated.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Detailed Assessment of Compliance on the Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision on Switzerland discusses that significant portions of guidance and legislation related to qualitative risk management and control standards are not as detailed or comprehensive as in many other major countries and need to be updated and selectively strengthened. Supervisory risk assessments and guidance to auditors, as the extended supervisory arm of the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority (FINMA), need to be further materially improved, beyond what is now envisioned. Additional skilled resources within FINMA are necessary to meet these goals and to conduct more on-site supervisory work. The responsibilities and objectives of FINMA that emphasize protecting creditors, investors and insured persons, as well as ensuring proper functioning of the financial market, should be clearly stated in legislation as pre-eminent. It is recommended to increase FINMA resources, especially for on-site inspection and risk expertise. Clarify and limit the cases in which the Board can become involved in supervisory decisions and improve conflict code.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
The Belgian financial system is relatively large, concentrated, and interconnected and has a high level of compliance with the Basel Core Principles (BCPs) for effective banking supervision. The National Bank of Belgium (NBB) deploys high-quality supervisory practices and has clear lines of accountability, transparency, and separate funding when acting in its supervisory capacity. The Belgian authorities have established a Resolution Fund (RF) vesting it with powers to take preventative measures and to facilitate resolution procedures.