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International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Este folleto, diseñado para atender necesidades básicas de economistas y estadísticos, es único en cuanto proporciona una explicación de los principios fundamentales en que se basan las estadísticas macroeconómicas consideradas como un sistema integrado. Se destacan las relaciones entre los distintos sectores y se presenta la vinculación entre las diversas estadísticas macroeconómicas --cuentas nacionales, balanza de pagos, estadísticas de finanzas públicas y estadísticas monetarias y financieras-- para ayudar al lector a comprender los principales conceptos en que se sustentan estas estadísticas. A tal efecto se simplifican muchos conceptos, explicando las características comunes y las diferencias, que muestra cómo se armonizan estas cuatro áreas estadísticas clave, y se proporcionan ejemplos para mostrar la aplicación práctica y los usos de los conceptos dentro del marco conceptual. Este folleto es una actualización integral del Folleto No. 29, Cuentas Macroeconómicas: Panorama general, preparado por Poul Holst-Madsen, y publicado en 1985.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Aimed primarily at meeting the needs of economists and statisticians, this pamphlet concisely describes the principles underlying the four main sets of macroeconomic accounts statistics, viewed as an integrated system. The four main sets are the national accounts, balance of payments and international investment position, monetary and financial statistics, and government finance statistics. To illustrate the relationships among the sets, the pamphlet covers statistics on transactions, stock data (asset and liability positions), and the linkages between stock data and transactions, as well as some economic statistical series closely related to these accounts.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Many early writers on economics, such as Adam Smith, focused on national wealth as an indicator of economic strength and performance. Later writers on economic theory, such as Keynes, Frisch, and Tinbergen, focused on economic flows. One major advance that the System of National Accounts 1993 (1993 SNA;Commission of the European Communities and others, 1993) made was to effectively marry these two approaches by linking in detail the accounts that present transactions and other economic flows with the balance sheets that present stocks of wealth.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Like the balance of payments manuals issued by the IMF in 1948, 1950, 1961, and 1977, the fifth edition of the Balance of Payments Manual (BPM5; IMF, 1993) serves as the international standard for the conceptual framework underlying balance of payments and international investment position (IIP) statistics. This framework assists countries in systematically collecting, organizing, and comparing these statistics across countries.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Monetary and financial statistics consist of a comprehensive set of stock and flow data on the financial and nonfinancial assets and liabilities of an economy’s financial corporations sector. The financial corporations sector plays an important role in matching units that have net lending surpluses with those that have borrowing requirements. Different types of financial corporations play specific roles, and a wide array of financial instruments exists to meet the complex needs of units active in financial markets. To show financial flows among the units and sectors of an economy and corresponding financial asset and liability positions, specialists have created statistical formats to organize and present the monetary and financial statistics.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Designed to meet the basic needs of economists and statisticians, this pamphlet is unique in providing an explanation of the key principles underlying macroeconomic statistics when viewed as an integrated system. It highlights the interrelationships between the various sectors and provides a bridge linking the various macroeconomic accounts statistics-national accounts, balance of payments, government finance statistics, and monetary and financial statistics-to assist the reader in understanding the main concepts underlying these statistics. It does so by simplifying many of the concepts, explaining common features and differences, showing how the four key statistical areas harmonize, and providing examples to demonstrate the practical application and uses of the concepts within the conceptual framework. The pamphlet completely updates Pamphlet No. 29, Macroeconomic Accounts: An Overview, by Poul Hølst-Madsen, which was published in 1985.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Conçue pour répondre aux besoins des économistes et statisticiens, cette brochure unique offre un tour d’horizon des principes fondamentaux sur lesquels reposent les statistiques macroéconomiques, vues comme un ensemble intégré. Elle met en lumière les relations entre les différents secteurs et établit des liens entre les différents systèmes de statistiques macroéconomiques — les comptes nationaux, la balance des paiements, les statistiques de finances publiques et les statistiques monétaires et financières — afin d'aider le lecteur à comprendre les principaux concepts sous-tendant ces statistiques. Pour ce faire, elle simplifie nombre de concepts, présente les points communs et les différences, montre comment les quatre grands ensembles statistiques s'articulent de façon harmonisée, et présente des exemples illustrant l'application pratique l'utilisation des concepts à des fins analytiques. Elle constitue une mise à jour en profondeur de la brochure n° 29, « Comptes macroéconomiques : un aperçu », rédigée par Poul Høst-Madsen et publiée en 1985.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Economists and statisticians have long found it useful to separate the activities of government from those of the rest of the economy because the powers, motivation, and functions of government differ from those of other sectors. Governments have powers to raise taxes and other compulsory levies and to pass laws affecting the behavior of other economic units. They focus on public policy considerations rather than on profit maximization. The principal economic functions of general government are

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

International experts who designed the four main systems of macroeconomic statistics, described in the previous chapters, developed the systems to share many common features. Over the past two decades, the developers emphasized harmonization of the systems wherever possible, while maintaining the elements necessary in each specialized system to assist analysis. Although the specific needs of the specialized systems precluded full integration across systems, linkages across the systems reflect the many common features, promoting understanding and facilitating reconciliation to a large extent.