The paper describes the impressive economic progress made by Iceland in implementing program policies, stabilizing the exchange rate, and bringing inflation down, under a program supported by a Stand-By Arrangement (SBA). The authorities noted that key challenges are to reduce the high level of unemployment, lift capital controls, accelerate private sector debt restructuring, and strengthen financial sector supervision and regulation. The full implementation of the economic program will create favorable conditions for economic progress based on sustainable public finances, private enterprise, and free markets.
Iceland has made considerable progress under an economic program supported by the Stand-By Arrangement (SBA). Successful implementation of fiscal adjustment, effective use of capital controls, and financial sector restructuring have underpinned the recovery. Executive Directors emphasized that Iceland should continue to build up its stock of international reserves. They welcomed the new framework for corporate debt restructuring, passage of the 2011 budget, and the agreement on Icesave dispute. The IMF Board appreciated efforts in achieving program targets and granted a waiver for maintaining the economic growth of the country.
Mr. Paul Louis Ceriel Hilbers, Mr. Arto Kovanen, and Mr. Charles Enoch
The European Monetary Institute has been working with national central banks of the European Union (EU) to prepare instruments for the operation of monetary policy in Stage 3 of European Economic and Monetary Union. Several publications describing the proposed arrangements have been issued. This paper briefly summarizes the arrangements and identifies some areas in which important decisions still have to be made or refinements introduced—including the choice of counterparties in fine-tuning open market operations; the design of reserve requirements; the signaling function of monetary operations; and payment system relationships with non-EMU participants in the EU.
Central banks may operate perfectly well without capital as conventionally defined. A large negative net worth, however, is likely to compromise central bank independence and interfere with its ability to attain policy objectives. If society values an independent central bank capable of effectively implementing monetary policy, recapitalization may become essential. Proper accounting practice in determining central bank profit or loss and rules governing the transfer of the central bank’s operating result to the treasury are also important. A variety of country-specific central bank practices are reviewed to support the argument.