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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

This paper highlights that despite severe limitations of resources, developing countries have made substantial progress during the past three decades in sending more children to school and in generally improving their education systems. Enrollment of children in schools at all levels has expanded at unprecedented rates. There has been a significant decline in the proportion of adults who are illiterate—from 44 percent in 1950 to 32 percent in 1975. Public expenditures for education have increased steadily in developing countries to reach roughly the same share of national product as in industrialized countries.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

This paper highlights that important changes have been made in the World Bank’s management systems since Mr. A. W. Clausen became President in July 1981. The changes reflect Mr. Clausen’s belief that there needs to be a more collegial approach to decision making and greater delegation of authority. The aim is that the World Bank should become more efficient and its activities should be more responsive to its clients’ needs. A Managing Committee was also established to take decisions on all key issues facing the World Bank.

Deena Khatkhate

What about the flow of well-educated people from less developed countries to richer countries? The author puts forth the view that—sometimes at least—it alleviates social and economic stresses in some of the “losing” countries.

Michael Walton

Providing economic opportunities for the poor and building up their capacity to take advantage of those opportunities can help reduce poverty and ensure sustainable growth

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

This paper analyzes the IMF’s Convention for Settlement of Investment Disputes. In March 1965, the Executive Directors of the IMF approved a Convention for submission to governments, together with a report commenting on the Convention’s principal features. The Convention establishes the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes as an autonomous international institution “to provide facilities for conciliation and arbitration of investment disputes.” It will “provide facilities,” because the Centre will not itself engage in conciliation or arbitration activities.

Joel E. Cohen and David E. Bloom

The paper highlights that over the past century, access to education has increased enormously, illiteracy has fallen dramatically, and a higher proportion of people are completing primary, secondary, or tertiary education than ever before. But huge problems remain. About 115 million children of primary school age are not currently enrolled in school. Most are illiterate and live in absolute poverty—the majority female. Some 264 million children of secondary school age are not currently enrolled, and the quality of schooling is often low.