Les économistes du FMI travaillent en étroite collaboration avec les pays membres sur diverses questions. Leur point de vue unique sur les expériences nationales et leurs bonnes pratiques relatives aux questions macroéconomiques mondiales sont souvent partagés sous la forme de livres sur divers sujets tels que les comparaisons entre pays, le renforcement des capacités, la politique macroéconomique, l’intégration financière et la mondialisation.
This paper focuses on goal setting for development of the world. The paper highlights that the goals come from the agreements and resolutions of the world conferences organized by the United Nations in the first half of the 1990s. The paper focuses on seven goals that cover poverty, education, gender equality, infant and child mortality, maternal mortality, reproductive health, and environment. Each of the seven goals addresses an aspect of poverty. The paper also emphasizes that these goals should be viewed together because they are mutually reinforcing.
Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo, Victor Ginsburgh, Mr. Shlomo Weber, Tim Harford, and Jeff Madrick
'Wising Up to the Costs of Aging' looks at how falling fertility and rising life expectancy have combined to threaten the ability of many countries to provide a decent standard of living for the old without imposing a crushing burden on the young. In our lead article, Ronald Lee and Andrew Mason say that while population aging in rich industrial countries as well as in some middle- and lower-income countries will challenge public and private budgets in many ways, a combination of reduced consumption, postponed retirement, increased asset holdings, and greater investment in human capital should make it possible to meet this challenge without catastrophic consequences. Neil Howe and Richard Jackson publish a fascinating ranking of which countries are best and worst prepared to meet the needs of the growing wave of retirees. We also have articles on a broad range of current topics, including Middle East unemployment, the economic repercussions of the earthquake and devastating tsunami in Japan, and banking in offshore financial centers such as the Cayman Islands. Carmen Reinhart and Jacob Kirkegaard look at how governments are finding ways to manipulate markets to hold down the cost of financing huge public debts, and, in Straight Talk, the IMF's Min Zhu talks about the long-term challenges now facing emerging markets. Prakash Loungani speaks to Nobel Prize winner George Akerlof, and we discuss with three other laureates-Michael Spence, Joseph Stiglitz, and Robert Solow-what the global economic crisis has taught us. Back to Basics explains economic models, and Picture This highlights the great variations in the cost of sending money back home.
In most parts of the world, people are healthier and living longer, thanks to improved health services and living conditions and the more widespread use of immunization, antibiotics, and better contraceptives. Although this trend is likely to continue, hopes are fading in some regions where progress slowed or stopped in the 1990s, primarily as a result of the AIDS epidemic. Indeed, life expectancy in sub-Saharan Africa declined from 50 to 46 years between 1990 and 2001. Moreover, most regions of the developing world will not, at the current pace, reach the Millennium Development Goals for health by 2015—including reducing child and maternal mortality and combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases. Here, we give a snapshot of changes in the world’s health and demographic conditions, and, in the following pages, four articles explore the importance of good health for economic development.
If developing countries face up to the realities of AIDS and act quickly, millions of lives can be saved. The following three articles on AIDS, written in 1998, look at the epidemic from an economic perspective and outline priorities for developing countries in preventing the spread of HIV and helping people already infected.
The AIDS epidemic is straining the limited resources of many developing country governments. How can governments provide support to those affected by AIDS without neglecting others in need or abandoning important development goals?
About 1.1 billion people worldwide smoke, and, with current trends, the number is expected to rise to more than 1.6 billion by 2025. In high-income countries, the number of smokers has, overall, been declining for decades, although it continues to rise in some population groups. In low- and middle-income countries, by contrast, cigarette consumption has been increasing.
Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Mr. Benedict J. Clements, Maria Teresa Guin-Siu, and Mr. Luc E. Leruth
The Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative, launched in 1996, was the first comprehensive effort by the international community to reduce the external debt of the world’s poorest countries. It went beyond earlier debt-relief initiatives in that it included debt from multilateral creditors like the IMF and the World Bank and placed debt relief within an overall framework of poverty reduction. Enhancements made to this Initiative in 1999 further strengthened the links among debt relief, poverty reduction, and social policies.
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix analyzes Ecuador’s fiscal policy using the concepts of the fiscal stance and fiscal impulse adjusted for movements in the real effective exchange rate. It finds that fiscal policy has been expansionary in 2000 and 2001. The paper shows that the growth of gross fixed investment was relatively strong during the 1970s; thereafter it slowed, particularly in the public sector. The paper also explores the evolution of oil reserves in recent years and the projections for the medium term.