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Mr. Charles Frederick Kramer

Asia Rising -- explores Asia's role in the world economy, the challenges faced from globalization, the quest for greater regional financial integration, the problem of lagging investment, and why East Asia performed so much better than Latin America. It also looks at the recovery of Japan and the rise of India and China. The economies of the ASEAN-4 come under the microscope in Country Focus. Other articles examine financial sector reform in Africa and the remaining hurdles to financial integration in the European Union. People in Economics profiles Paul Krugman, Back to Basics focuses on hedge funds, and the Straight Talk column looks at the problem of underdevelopment.

Barber B. Conable

This paper describes the World Bank’s mission in a changing world. Conditionality of the Bank is different in several ways as it operates over a longer timeframe and relates to the more comfortable issues of economic growth rather than financial stabilization. The longer timeframes of the Bank’s programs require reaching agreement with borrowing countries on the desirability of maintaining the course that’s being advocated for an extended period. Many developing countries are unduly sensitive about the possibility that they may have to exercise their sovereignty more forcefully in the future.

John Finger, J. Michael Nash, Kenneth King, William McGreevey, Vikram Khanna, and Erich Spitaeller

SlNCE the dissolution of the Soviet Union, most of the former member states have retained the ruble as their national currency but have followed independent monetary policies. Such a combination is not sustainable. With mounting disarray in the ruble area, each state must now quickly adopt either a common monetary policy or a separate national currency.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

FINANCES & DEVELOPMENT is published quarterly in English, Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish by the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Washington, DC 20431, USA.

Francisco Ceron, Santacruz Pasto,, Anthony R. Perram, Arlington, Virginia,, Gunter Schramm, Jeremy J. Warford,, Yusuf J. Ahmad,, Salah El Serafy,, Ernst Lutz, George Ledec, Robert Goodland, Wans Gregersen,, Dennis J. Mahar, Daniel W. Bromley, and Michael M. Cernea

For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

The analysis and adjustment of government expenditure in less developed countries is discussed. A better balance between supply and demand in the public sector can be achieved by raising budgetary revenues, or by cutting budgetary expenditures, or by some combination of both. The IMF devotes considerable attention to assisting countries to make their tax systems more buoyant, to reduce the disincentive effects of taxation, and to administer their tax systems more effectively. Government expenditure policies are often important elements in programs of external adjustment supported by the IMF.