Detailed annual data for Fund member governments are supplied on revenue income by source (tax, lending, bonds, etc.), and expenditure by sector (defense, education, health, etc.) for all levels of government (national, state, local). Topics covered include deficit/surplus or total financing, revenues or grants, expenditures, lending minus repayments, domestic financing, foreign financing, domestic debt or total debt, and foreign debt. The Yearbook provides data on budgetary operations, extra-budgetary operations, social security, and consolidated financial operations of central governments. A section of the Government Finance Statistics Yearbook is devoted to a cross-country comparison of data.
This paper highlights Bulgaria’s state-owned enterprises (SOEs) sector and to assess its performance in a regional perspective. A detailed and rich firm-level dataset of state-owned and private firms was compiled for this note to compare key performance indicators of SOEs to private firms in the same sector and to similar firms in Croatia and Romania for a regional comparison. In some network industries, such as energy, SOEs are heavily loss-making. Large amounts of debt have been piled up notably in the energy and transport sectors which, to the extent that it is classified outside the general government accounts, can pose significant risk to public finances in the form of contingent liabilities if the SOEs run into financial difficulties. SOE profitability and resource allocation efficiency largely lag private firms in the same sectors, even when isolating SOEs engaged in competitive market activities and hence classified outside of general government. Coupled with comparably poor output quality, these challenges have the potential to impair competitiveness and productivity across the economy.
The paper is an elaborated report on Nicaragua’s potential economic growth. The challenges and idiosyncratic shocks were immense but the policies of better education, labor contracts, and accomplishments in public investments paved the way for movement of the economy. The external competitiveness and exchange rate assessment also have an important hand. The achievements in the electricity sector and the improvement in reforming the pension system are the prominent aspects. On the whole, the Board considers this growth as a positive trial of development in the global panorama.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
In this paper, the structure of Colombia’s financial sector is analyzed and various risks of the financial sector are studied. Supervision of the financial system can be performed by supervisory architecture, banking supervision, various securities, and insurance policies. Systemic liquidity provision, deposit insurance, and bank resolution form the financial safety net. Finally, financial stability and macroprudential framework have been discussed. Macroprudential tools and policies are also explained in detail.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This Selected Issues paper examines opportunities and challenges for growth in Haiti. Achieving a sustained increase in living standards in Haiti will require deep-seated reforms across a range of areas. Diversifying the export base is needed to cushion the impact of severe shocks that have reduced per capita income and prevented a sustained increase in the capital stock. Integration into global-value chains would also allow Haiti to take advantage of its proximity to the U.S. market and favorable trade preferences to generate employment, spur the creation of human capital, and allow Haiti to begin climbing the value added chain.
The Canadian financial sector is among the world’s most highly developed. The five large banking groups that form the core of the system are conservatively managed and highly profitable. The stress tests suggest that the large Canadian banks can withstand a broad range of shocks. The current turbulence in global credit markets has affected Canada’s asset-backed commercial paper market. The Canadian Depository Securities Settlement System is sound, efficient and reliable, and it complies with almost all Recommendations for Securities Settlement Systems.
We analyze the US public sector balance sheet and project it forward under the assumption that
current policies remain in place. We first document the history of the balance sheet and its
components since World War II, with a detailed account of its evolution during and after
the global financial crisis. While, based on assets and liabilities alone, public sector net
worth is negative, additional challenges arise from commitments to future spending implied
by current legislation and demographic trends. To quantify the risks to the balance sheet,
we then apply the macroeconomic scenarios from the Federal Reserve’s bank stress test to
the public sector balance sheet.