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José C. Sónchiz

“International Financial Statistics”—known wherever international monetary affairs are studied as IFS—is a compendium of information, issued monthly by the Fund. It is a major tool for understanding the international monetary system and the economic situation of individual countries.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
São Tomé and Príncipe is a fragile, small island-state, with limited resources and capacity. The last Extended Credit Facility (ECF) arrangement expired at end-2018 having gone off-track amid parliamentary elections, power outages, internal and external imbalances, and high debt vulnerability. Growth slowed, inflation rose, the fiscal position deteriorated, and foreign reserves declined sharply in 2018, while some critical structural reforms were delayed. Higher and more inclusive growth is needed to reduce poverty and unemployment, particularly among the large youth population.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This paper discusses São Tomé and Príncipe’s 2018 Article IV Consultation, Fifth Review Under the Extended Credit Facility, Request for Waivers for Nonobservance of Performance Criteria, and Financing Assurances Review. São Tomé and Príncipe’s GDP growth in 2017 is estimated at about 4 percent, similar to the previous two years. Inflation spiked to 7.7 percent at end 2017, caused by unfavorable weather conditions and an increase in import taxes on selective goods. Fiscal consolidation continued albeit at a slower pace than expected. The macroeconomic outlook is positive. Growth is expected to remain at 4 percent in 2018 and to accelerate to 5 percent in the medium term as new externally-financed projects get under way.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
The pandemic is taking a heavy toll on the fragile island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe. Tourist arrivals came to an abrupt halt in mid-March, externally financed projects are being delayed, and supply shipments are disrupted. In response to the local outbreak, emergency confinement measures have been in place since March to contain infection. The authorities began phasing out these measures in late June, aiming for a full reopening of the economy by end-July. A disbursement supported by the Rapid Credit Facility (SDR 9.028 million) was approved in April 2020. The authorities request an augmentation of the ECF program by 10 percent of quota (SDR 1.48 million).
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
The COVID-19 pandemic is having a severe impact on São Tomé and Príncipe’s economy, exacerbating fiscal and external imbalances. Tourism activities and external remittances dropped sharply, while lockdown measures further deepened the recession. The authorities’ swift actions and unprecedented international financial support are helping the country weather the emergency. The economy began to reopen in the fall, but the outlook for 2021 remains challenging and subject to significant uncertainty.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This 2016 Article IV Consultation highlights that economic growth in the Central African Republic has remained anemic since 2013 owing to structural rigidities, poor infrastructure, and limited energy supply. Inflation reached 11.6 percent in 2014 and receded to 4.5 percent in 2015 thanks to improved supply conditions and a fall in the prices of basic imports. Corrective measures implemented in 2015 allowed revenue to reach 7.1 percent. IMF Executive Directors have commended the authorities for the progress achieved under their economic program supported by the Rapid Credit Facility, which has helped stabilize the economy, rebuild core administrative capacity, and improve the management of public resources.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This paper discusses Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe’s Request for a 40-Month Arrangement Under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF). The ECF aims to support São Tomé and Príncipe’s economic and structural reforms. The program aims to reduce debt vulnerability, alleviate balance of payment pressures, restore fiscal and external sustainability over the medium term, promote sustainable and inclusive growth, and provide positive signals to stakeholders. Structural reforms should help mobilize revenue, enhance control over public spending, reduce contingent liabilities from state owned enterprises, improve financial stability, and promote sustainable and inclusive growth to reduce poverty, including through empowering women economically. The government plans to undertake sustained fiscal consolidation and reforms to reduce debt vulnerability. A floor on pro-poor spending, along with a World Bank social protection program, will protect the most vulnerable. The Fund-supported program will also play a catalytic role and provide positive signals to stakeholders.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
The pandemic is taking a heavy toll on the fragile island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe. Tourist arrivals came to an abrupt halt in mid-March, externally financed projects are being delayed, and supply shipments are disrupted. In response to the local outbreak, emergency confinement measures have been in place since March to contain infection. The authorities began phasing out these measures in late June, aiming for a full reopening of the economy by end-July. A disbursement supported by the Rapid Credit Facility (SDR 9.028 million) was approved in April 2020. The authorities request an augmentation of the ECF program by 10 percent of quota (SDR 1.48 million).
Mr. Chris Becker
This paper seeks to document key characteristics of small island states in the Pacific. It restricts itself to a limited number of indicators which are macro-orientated - population, fertility of land, ability to tap into economies of scale, income, and geographic isolation. It leaves aside equally important but more micro-orientated variables and development indicators. We show that small island states in the Pacific are different from countries in other regional groupings in that they are extremely isolated and have limited scope to tap economies of scale due to small populations. They often have little arable land. There is empirical evidence to suggest that these factors are related to income growth.
International Monetary Fund

Economic growth in Equatorial Guinea recovered sharply in 2007. The opening of a new oil field in late 2006 and a liquefied natural gas facility in mid-2007, supported by increased public infrastructure spending, lifted 2007 economic growth to an estimated 21.4 percent. Executive Directors have welcomed Equatorial Guinea’s recent robust economic performance and sound macroeconomic policies that have strengthened fiscal sustainability. Directors have also welcomed the National Development Plan, which provides an appropriate framework for economic and institutional reforms to diversify the economy and enhance external competitiveness.