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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

Dr. Yaga Venugopal Reddy was Governor, Reserve Bank of India, from 2003 to 2008. Subsequently, he was a member of the UN Commission of Experts to the President of the UN General Assembly on Reforms of the International Monetary and Financial System. Dr. Reddy was also a member of an informal international group of prominent persons on international monetary reforms (Palais Royal Initiative). He is Professor Emeritus at the University of Hyderabad and Distinguished Professor at the Indian Institute for Technology (IIT) Madras, as well as an honorary fellow of the London School of Economics and Political Science, and is on the Advisory Board of the Institute for New Economic Thinking (INET).

International Monetary Fund
This paper highlights key findings of the assessment of financial sector regulation and supervision in the Cayman Islands. The assessment reveals that in the last two years, an extensive program of legislative, rule, and guideline development in the Cayman Islands has introduced an increasingly effective system of regulation, both formalizing earlier practices and introducing enhanced procedures. The implementation of financial regulation and supervision complies broadly with standards in all the areas assessed. However, issues related to resources and potential breaches of operational autonomy affect the regulator and, hence, supervision in all sectors.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept and International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen to podcasts given by top IMF economists on important issues in the global economy. www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/home.aspx
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
La edición en Internet del Boletín del FMI, que se actualiza varias veces a la semana, contiene numerosos artículos sobre temas de actualidad en el ámbito de las políticas y la economía. Consulte las últimas investigaciones del FMI, lea entrevistas y escuche podcasts de los principales economistas del FMI sobre importantes temas relacionados con la economía mundial. www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/home.aspx
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
L’édition web du Bulletin du FMI est mise à jour plusieurs fois par semaine et contient de nombreux articles sur des questions de politique générale et de politique économique d'actualité. Accédez aux dernières recherches du FMI, lisez des interviews et écoutez des podcasts proposés par les principaux économistes du FMI sur des questions importantes de l'économie mondiale. www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/home.aspx
Mr. Michael W Taylor, Mr. Marc G Quintyn, and Ms. Eva H. G. Hüpkes
Policymakers' uneasiness about granting independence to financial sector regulators stems to a large extent from the lack of familiarity with, and elusiveness of, the concept of accountability. This paper gives operational content to accountability and argues that it is possible to do so in a way that encourages and supports agency independence. The paper first elaborates on the role and purposes of accountability. Second, it shows that the unique features of financial sector supervision point to a more complex system of accountability arrangements than, for instance, the conduct of monetary policy. Finally, the paper discusses specific arrangements that can best secure the objectives of accountability and, thus, independence. Our findings have a wider application than financial sector supervision.
Jihad Dagher
Financial crises are traditionally analyzed as purely economic phenomena. The political economy of financial booms and busts remains both under-emphasized and limited to isolated episodes. This paper examines the political economy of financial policy during ten of the most infamous financial booms and busts since the 18th century, and presents consistent evidence of pro-cyclical regulatory policies by governments. Financial booms, and risk-taking during these episodes, were often amplified by political regulatory stimuli, credit subsidies, and an increasing light-touch approach to financial supervision. The regulatory backlash that ensues from financial crises can only be understood in the context of the deep political ramifications of these crises. Post-crisis regulations do not always survive the following boom. The interplay between politics and financial policy over these cycles deserves further attention. History suggests that politics can be the undoing of macro-prudential regulations.
Erlend Nier, Mr. Luis Ignacio Jácome, Jacek Osinski, and Pamela Madrid
A number of countries are reviewing their institutional arrangements for financial stability to support the development of a macroprudential policy function. In some cases, this involves a rethink of the appropriate institutional boundaries between central banks and financial regulatory agencies, or the setting up of dedicated policymaking committees. In others, efforts are underway to enhance cooperation within the existing institutional structure. Against this background, this paper provides basic guidance for the design of effective arrangements, in a manner that can provide a framework for country-specific advice. After reviewing briefly the main institutional elements of existing and emerging macroprudential policy frameworks across countries, the paper identifies stylized institutional models based on key features that distinguish institutional arrangements. It develops criteria to assess the effectiveness of models, examines the strengths and weaknesses of models against these criteria, and explores ways to improve existing setups. The paper finally distills lessons and sets out desired principles for effective macroprudential policy arrangements.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

JAIME CARUANA: Welcome all of you to the BIS on the occasion of the Per Jacobsson Lecture. And it is a particular pleasure to welcome Dr. Reddy back to Basel, where he has so many friends. As you know, Dr. Reddy has a long record dedicated to public service. As a senior official in the Ministry of Finance he took a leading part in the liberalization of the Indian economy that began in the early 1990s. And in later years as Governor of the Reserve Bank, he did much to ensure that the Indian banks avoided these precrisis excesses. And therefore, he knows very well from personal experience how difficult it is to constrain this process, and he showed really great fortitude during this difficult period and under heavy pressure. So after the excellent Per Jacobsson Lecture last year with Andrew Crockett, I think this year we have also an excellent panelist, an excellent presenter.