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International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Abstract

The Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions (AREAER) has been published by the IMF since 1950. It is a unique publication based on a database maintained by the IMF that tracks exchange arrangements and foreign exchange systems for all member countries on an annual basis and also provides historical information on these. The introduction to the volume provides a summary of recent global trends and developments in the areas covered by the publication. Individual country chapters report exchange measures in place, the structure and setting of the exchange rate, arrangements for payments and receipts, procedures for resident and nonresident accounts, mechanisms for import and export payments and receipts, controls on capital transactions, and provisions specific to the financial sector. A separate section in each chapter lists changes made during 2005 and the first part of 2006. The AREAER draws on information made available to the IMF from a number of sources, including during official staff visits to member countries, and has been prepared in close consultation with national authorities. The information is presented in a tabular format.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is a fragile state and vulnerable to recurrent shocks. Relations with the Fund have been quite active since early 2019, with a Staff Monitored Program (SMP) coupled with a Rapid Credit Facility (RCF) disbursement in December 2019 and a second RCF disbursement in April 2020 to respond to the COVID-19 crisis. Economic activity decelerated sharply in 2020 because of the crisis and reserves decreased to less than two weeks of imports. President Tshisekedi requested a three-year Extended Credit Facility (ECF) arrangement to support his medium-term reform program.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is a fragile state and vulnerable to recurrent shocks. Relations with the Fund have been quite active since early 2019, with a Staff Monitored Program (SMP) coupled with a Rapid Credit Facility (RCF) disbursement in December 2019 and a second RCF disbursement in April 2020 to respond to the COVID-19 crisis. Economic activity decelerated sharply in 2020 because of the crisis and reserves decreased to less than two weeks of imports. President Tshisekedi requested a three-year Extended Credit Facility (ECF) arrangement to support his medium-term reform program.
International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
This paper examines effects of economic growth and speed of adjustment on openness, human development, and fiscal policies. The model developed in this paper postulates that learning through experience raises labor productivity with three major consequences. First, the steady-state growth rate of output becomes endogenous and is influenced by government policies. Second, the speed of adjustment to steady-state growth increases and enhanced learning further reduces adjustment time. Third, both steady-state growth and the optimal net rate of return to capital are higher than the sum of the exogenous rates of technical change and population growth.