The growth of the peer-to-peer (P2P) economy over the last decade has captivated both stock markets and policymakers alike. While the means for transacting might be different to existing firm structures—with the emergence of digital platforms that connect individual buyers and sellers directly—the tax behavior of individuals operating in this new economy are very familiar. What is clear is that while the P2P economy has potentially exacerbated existing policy, administrative, and revenue-mobilization challenges associated with small business taxation—such as the choice of the tax base and how to set tax thresholds—, the technology behind P2P platforms presents a valuable opportunity to eventually solve them.
This paper analyzes the dynamic interactions between the precision of information, technological development, and welfare within an overlapping generations model. More precise information about idiosyncratic production shocks has ambiguous effects on technological progress and welfare, which depend critically on the risk sharing capacity of the economy's financial system. For example, we show that with efficient risk sharing more precise information adversely affects the equilibrium risk allocation and creates a negative uncertainty-related welfare effect, at the same time as it accelerates technological progress and increases R&D investment.
In the report, the Executive Board proposes that the Board of Governors adopt a Resolution: (i) noting the Report of the Executive Board and expressing regret that the timetable for completing the Fifteenth Review established under Resolution No. 71-2 is no longer within reach; (ii) calling on the Executive Board to work on the Fifteenth Review expeditiously in line with existing Executive Board understandings and the guidance provided by the IMFC on October 8, 2016 with the aim of completing the Fifteenth Review by the 2019 Spring Meetings and no later than the 2019 Annual Meetings; (iii) requesting that the Executive Board report on progress on the Fifteenth Review to the Board of Governors semiannually, with a first report by the 2017 Annual Meetings; and (iv) urging the remaining members who have not yet consented to their quota increases under the Fourteenth General Review of Quotas to do so without further delay and urging the members who have consented to their quota increases to make their quota payments in a timely manner.
In completing the Fourteenth General Review of Quotas (hereafter the “Fourteenth Review”) and approving the proposed Amendment on the Reform of the Executive Board (hereafter the “Board Reform Amendment”), the Board of Governors requested the Executive Board to bring forward the timetable for completion of the Fifteenth General Review of Quotas (hereafter the “Fifteenth Review”) to January 2014.
On January 16, 2020, the Executive Board adopted a Report to the Board of Governors proposing that the Board of Governors adopt a Resolution concluding the Fifteenth General Review of Quotas with no increase in quotas and providing guidance for the Sixteenth General Review of Quotas in line with the IMFC guidance in the October 19, 2019 Communiqué. The Resolution was adopted by the Board of Governors, effective February 7, 2020, and was designated No. 75-1.
Digitalization encompasses a wide range of new applications of information technology in business models and products that are transforming the economy and social interactions. Digitalization is both an enabler and a disruptor of businesses. The lack of a generally agreed definition of the “digital economy” or “digital sector” and the lack of industry and product classification for Internet platforms and associated services are hurdles to measuring the digital economy. This paper distinguishes between the “digital sector” and the increasingly digitalized modern economy, often called the “digital economy,” and focuses on the measurement of the digital sector. The digital sector covers the core activities of digitalization, ICT goods and services, online platforms, and platform-enabled activities such as the sharing economy.