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Jihad Dagher
Financial crises are traditionally analyzed as purely economic phenomena. The political economy of financial booms and busts remains both under-emphasized and limited to isolated episodes. This paper examines the political economy of financial policy during ten of the most infamous financial booms and busts since the 18th century, and presents consistent evidence of pro-cyclical regulatory policies by governments. Financial booms, and risk-taking during these episodes, were often amplified by political regulatory stimuli, credit subsidies, and an increasing light-touch approach to financial supervision. The regulatory backlash that ensues from financial crises can only be understood in the context of the deep political ramifications of these crises. Post-crisis regulations do not always survive the following boom. The interplay between politics and financial policy over these cycles deserves further attention. History suggests that politics can be the undoing of macro-prudential regulations.
Ms. Jennifer A. Elliott and Ana Carvajal
This paper examines the strengths and weaknesses of securities regulatory systems worldwide with a view to a better understanding of common problems and areas of global concern. We found that a consistent theme emerges regarding the lack of ability of regulators to effectively enforce compliance with existing rules and regulation. In many countries, a combination of factors, including insufficient legal authority, a lack of resources, political will and skills, has undermined the regulator's capacity to effectively execute regulation. This weakness is more acute in areas of increased technical complexity such as standards for and supervision of the valuation of assets and risk management practices.
Cheng Hoon Lim, Mr. Rishi S Ramchand, Mrs. Helen W Wagner, and Mr. Xiaoyong Wu
This paper surveys institutional arrangements for macroprudential policy in Asia. Central banks in Asia typically have a financial stability mandate, and play a key role in the macroprudential framework. Smaller and more open economies with prudential regulation inside the central bank tend to have institutional arrangements that give the central bank a leading role. In larger and more complex economies where prudential regulation is outside the central bank, the financial stability mandate is usually shared with other agencies and the government tends to play a leading role. Domestic policy coordination is typically performed by a financial stability committee/other coordination body while cross-border cooperation is largely governed by Memoranda of Understanding.
International Monetary Fund
etary and Financial Committee Publication Date: April 5, 2014 Electronic Access:Free Full Text. Use the free Adobe Acrobat Reader to view this PDF file Summary:Global activity is strengthening, but the recovery is uneven and remains too weak for comfort, with geopolitical tensions injecting new concerns. Key challenges include risks from a lasting rise in capital flow volatility for emerging and frontier economies and very low inflation in advanced economies, especially the euro area. Creating a more dynamic, job rich global economy remains our collective goal. For this, policymakers should manage the recovery more actively and reinforce their cooperation to minimize negative spillovers and promote financial stability. The Executive Summary is also available in Arabic , Chinese, French, Japanese, Russian , and Spanish.
International Monetary Fund
Over the past five years much has been done to avoid the worst and stave off a great depression. While the recovery has been disappointing until recently, there are some encouraging signs that activity is strengthening in advanced economies. Breaking the cycle of growth shortfalls and recurring market jitters requires carefully managing multiple transitions that are already underway. These transitions include the normalization of global financial conditions; a shift in global growth dynamics, and a rebalancing of global demand; and the completion of reforms to the international financial system. Much more ambitious reform implementation and policy coherence are needed to address these challenges and avoid five more years of growth disappointments.