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International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Turkmenistan during 1994–98. Turkmenistan reduced gas exports and suffered a decline in real GDP of close to 40 percent during 1993–95. At the same time, it stepped up foreign borrowing and constrained imports by limiting access to foreign exchange to sustain gross international reserves at the equivalent of 6–9 months of imports. The distortions associated with the perpetuation of central controls, coupled with an accommodating monetary policy, led to financial instability, raising annual average inflation rates to close to 1,500 percent during 1993–95.
International Monetary Fund
In this paper, the following statistical data are listed: economic indicators, central government operations, balance of payments, monetary survey, GDP by sectoral origin, gross domestic expenditure at current prices, production, exports, and domestic consumption of oil, natural gas production and uses, crude oil deliveries to domestic refineries, domestic prices for major agricultural products and fertilizers, output, cultivated area, and yield of major crops, education indicators, price developments, central government revenues, value of non-oil exports, exchange rate developments, and so on.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Turkmenistan during 1992–96. There was a general strengthening of centralized controls during 1993–95 to protect international reserves. Monetary and exchange rate policies were geared toward sustaining a network of implicit taxes and subsidies that helped promote selected areas of economic activity and provide social protection. Real GDP declined by nearly 19 percent in 1994, reflecting, for the most part, contraction of the gas and cotton sectors. Gas production declined continuously from 87.8 billion cubic meters in 1990 to 35.7 billion cubic meters in 1994.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Turkmenistan during 1994–97. To address the growing economic difficulties, the government announced an economic reform package for 1996, which aimed at achieving a recovery in output, sharply lowering inflation, maintaining a strong reserve position, and promoting private sector development. The reform package had mixed success. Monetary and credit policy was generally restrained until late 1996, contributing to a moderation in inflation. However, economy-wide public sector wages were doubled in October, against a background of continued payment difficulties in the gas sector and a decline in GDP.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Azerbaijan during the 1990s. In 1992, approximately 70–80 percent of producer and consumer prices were liberalized, and enterprises were allowed greater latitude in their price and wage setting. However, price controls were applied on energy and bread prices, price markups remained controlled, and the price liberalization process was constrained by state procurement of major production items. Although the coverage of the state order system was gradually reduced, it still accounted for most of the production of “strategic goods” at end-1994.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.