2.1 The results of the 2001 SIMSDI update show that there have been marked improvements in both the availability of FDI statistics, particularly position data, and in the application of a number of the recommendations of the international standards for compilation of FDI statistics. However, there are still areas where the majority of countries do not yet follow the international standards. Box 2.1 summarizes (1) the areas where there have been marked improvements since 1997; (2) the areas where more than 75 percent of the 61 countries that participated in the 2001 update now follow the international standards applicable to their economies at present; and (3) areas where, despite improvements, the majority of the 61 countries do not yet follow the international recommendations.
3.1 The BPM5 and the Benchmark recommend that FDI statistics be compiled as part of balance of payments statistics (the transactions data) and international investment position (IIP) statements (the position data). Countries are expected to compile and disseminate FDI statistics according to the standard components of BPM5: direct investment income, direct investment financial flows, and direct investment positions. The direct investment income component is broken down into (1) income on equity (dividends and distributed branch profits), (2) reinvested earnings and undistributed branch profits, and (3) income on debt (interest). Direct investment financial flows are broken down into (1) equity capital, (2) reinvested earnings (the counterpart of the income item for reinvested earnings), and (3) other capital (intercompany debt transactions). The data on direct investment positions are broken down into (1) equity capital and reinvested earnings, and (2) other capital.
4.1 The BPM5 and the Benchmark define the concept of foreign direct investment as international investment by an entity resident in one economy in an enterprise resident in another economy that is made with the objective of obtaining a lasting interest. The lasting interest implies the existence of a long-term relationship between the direct investor and the enterprise and a significant degree of influence on the management of the enterprise. Direct investment involves both the initial transaction that establishes the relationship between the two entities and all subsequent capital transactions between them and among affiliated enterprises, both incorporated and unincorporated.
5.1 The Benchmark and the BPM5 recommend the use of the Current Operating Performance Concept (COPC) to measure direct investment earnings. According to this concept, the earnings of an enterprise consist of its income from normal operations before accounting for nonrecurring items and capital gains and losses. Operational earnings of the direct investment enterprise should be reported after provision for depreciation of capital and income and corporation tax charged on these earnings have been deducted. Direct investment earnings should not include any realized or unrealized capital gains or losses or exchange rate gains or losses made by either the direct investment enterprise or the direct investor. The earnings should also not include writeoffs, such as inventory write-offs, write-offs of intangibles, write-offs of bad debts, or write-offs on expropriations without compensation. Many enterprises use the All-Inclusive Concept to measure earnings. On the basis of this concept, income is the amount remaining after all items (including capital gains and losses and write-offs) that cause any increase or decrease in the shareholders’ or investors’ interests during the period are taken into account. Because data for many countries are available only on an all-inclusive basis, those countries that report earnings on either an operating basis or an all-inclusive basis are recommended to collect and publish supplementary information on holding gains and losses and other extraordinary items. This practice would enhance international comparability for both the transactions data and the position data.
6.1 Direct investment capital is capital provided by a direct investor, either directly or through other direct investment enterprises related to that investor, to a direct investment enterprise. Conversely, direct investment capital is capital received by a direct investor from a direct investment enterprise. Direct investment capital includes equity capital, reinvested earnings, and other capital involving various intercompany debt transactions. Direct investment capital includes only funds actually provided; funds for which the direct investor merely makes the arrangements or guarantees repayment are not considered to be direct investment capital.
7.1 In principle, all external financial assets and liabilities should be valued at the market prices prevailing on the date they are recorded in the FDI statistics. However, there are some recognized departures from the market-price principle. For direct investment, values recorded in the balance sheets of direct investment enterprises (book values) are often used to determine the value of the stock of direct investment. If these balance-sheet values are recorded on the basis of market prices prevailing on the balance sheet date, such values are generally in accordance with the market-valuation principle. However, if balance sheet values are based on historical cost or on interim, but not current, revaluations, such balance-sheet values do not conform with the market-valuation principle.
8.1 Some types of enterprises or activities warrant special mention. The SIMSDI survey sought information on the treatment of a number of these special cases: namely, quasi-corporations arising from construction enterprises and the operation of mobile equipment; cross-border real estate transactions; transactions with offshore enterprises and Special Purpose Entities (SPEs); and the treatment of expenditure on natural resources exploration.
After the collapse of socialist regimes in the early 1990s, ensuing conflicts in the region caused major disruptions, and income per capita fell. The pace of recovery was uneven in the second half of the 1990s: some countries such as Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia experienced a sharp turnaround in growth, while others such as Serbia and Albania faced high growth volatility. By the end of the decade, however, real GDP per capita in the region had recovered to its pre-1990 level, despite another recession around the turn of the century, when output in Albania, Montenegro, and Serbia shrank by over 10 percent in a single year.