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International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix analyzes fiscal costs associated with Poland’s accession to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and European Union (EU). The paper highlights that Poland’s accession to the EU could result in fiscal costs in certain areas, especially in upgrading the infrastructure in transportation and utilities, and improving the environment. The legislative reforms and the establishment of the regulatory and administrative structures are also likely to entail costs, though these costs are more difficult to quantify. This paper also discusses fiscal management and restructuring in Poland.
Mr. Howell H Zee
This paper proposes a new hybrid cash-flow tax on corporations that, on one hand, taxes only excess corporate profits as they accrue, and, on the other hand, treats real and financial transactions neutrally. It is, therefore, a superior tax compared to the cash-flow tax on real transactions that seems to have gained common acceptance. The hybrid tax is a modified version of the cash-flow tax on real and financial transactions combined. The modification involves replacing expensing of fixed assets with normal depreciation allowances, but the undepreciated value of fixed assets is carried forward with interest at the opportunity cost of equity capital.
Ms. Li Liu
In 2009, the United Kingdom changed from a worldwide to a territorial tax system, abolishing dividend taxes on foreign repatriation from many low-tax countries. This paper assesses the causal effect of territorial taxation on real investments, using a unique dataset for multinational affiliates in 27 European countries and employing the difference-in-difference approach. It finds that the territorial reform has increased the investment rate of UK multinationals by 15.7 percentage points in low-tax countries. In the absence of any significant investment reduction elsewhere, the findings represent a likely increase in total outbound investment by UK multinationals.
Pietro Dallari, Mr. Nicolas End, Fedor Miryugin, Alexander F. Tieman, and Mr. Seyed Reza Yousefi
This paper investigates the role of tax incentives towards debt finance in the buildup of leverage in the nonfinancial corporate (NFC) sector, using a large firm-level dataset. We find that so-called debt bias is a significant driver of leverage, for both small and medium-sized enterprises and larger firms, with its effect accounting for about a quarter of leverage. The strength of this effect differs with firm size, the availability of collateral, income and income volatility, cash flow, and capital intensity. We conclude that leveling the playing field between debt and equity finance through tax policy reform would decrease NFC leverage, reducing economic risks posited by leverage.
International Monetary Fund
This paper strengthens the claim made by Vito Tanzi that when the effect of a high inflation on the tax system is taken into account, then the overall revenues from inflationary finance may well be negative. The paper analyzes some genuine and neat measures taken in Israel in an attempt to construct an inflation-proof tax system. Despite these very elegant measures, the paper concludes that the Israeli experience suggests that it is more appropriate to talk about the “inflation subsidy” rather than the “inflation tax.”
International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper for the Republic of Korea focuses on the role of monetary policy in the current context of slowing growth and rising inflation pressures. Korea has not remained immune to the global slowdown, and with the cycle turning downward, the trade-off between inflation and growth is deteriorating. Subprime-related turbulences in financial markets add an extra element of uncertainty to the economic outlook, and have led to a noticeable increase in Korea’s stock market and exchange rate volatility.