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Mr. Vito Tanzi

Abstract

Over the past decade two major intellectual developments (some would call them revolutions) have had a major impact on how economists and policymakers think about the way policies affect economies. The first of these revolutions is associated with a growing body of literature that goes under the name of “public choice.” In 1986 James Buchanan received a Nobel Prize in economics for his seminal contributions to this literature. The second is the less unified, but highly influential, thinking that goes under the name of supply-side economics. Supply-side economics had its major expression in the United States under the Reagan Administration. Its influence has progressively spread to other countries, both developed and developing.

Abstract

Economists working on fiscal policy and fiscal management need a good understanding of how the expenditure side of the budget is planned, prepared, and executed.1 This publication is designed for those interested in the macroeconomic impact of such budget processes, rather than in the perhaps more familiar microeconomic perspective of expenditure policies.

Donald Axelrod

Abstract

In our discussions of the budget process we usually assume that budget making is the sole prerogative of chief executives and legislatures. It is no longer so. Increasingly in many countries the courts intervene in every phase of the budget process at all levels of government. The intrusion may be sporadic, as is true in most countries where the courts are free to interpret constitution and budget laws. Or it may be intensive, as in the United States where court decisions affect budget formulation, appropriations, budget implementation, investment programs, debt financing, intergovernmental grants, legislative-executive relations in budgeting, and the financing of public enterprises. In the latter, possibly extreme situation, the courts frequently determine funding levels, service standards, staffing patterns, salaries, and even budget procedures.

PAUL W. MCDONALD

Abstract

The 1980s have seen an unprecedented series of financial management, accounting, and budgetary reforms in the Australian federal public sector. The rationale for these reforms, their progress to date, and the challenges they pose for the future are addressed in this chapter to provide some insights into the “results or performance-oriented” management approach adopted by the Federal Government. Significant economic reform has also been pursued in Australia during this period and, in a very real sense, it has been linked closely with the financial management and budgetary initiatives of the Government. This nexus is best seen by describing the circumstances that brought about the reform process.

Abstract

Canada has three levels of government that serve 27 million people in a country of massive geographic proportions—it is the second largest in the world after the Soviet Union. There is one federal government, ten provincial governments, two territorial governments, and over 5,000 local governments. Because of Canada’s vast size and relatively small population, its governments historically have played a vital role in financing and building transportation, communication, and power infrastructure.

WANG SONG NIAN

Abstract

Accounting for the public sector in the People’s Republic of China is termed budgetary accounting. It is designed to record, report, and supervise the implementation of the state budget and to provide information for budgetary control. China is a socialist country whose economy is characterized by public ownership. The budget system bears some unique features that have a significant impact on budgetary accounting. An understanding of the public finance and budget system is necessary before going into accounting issues.

Dhirendra Swarup

Abstract

The protective role and responsibilities of government have undergone a radical change in the last few decades. The emphasis has been progressively shifting from maintenance of law and order to developmental activities. Over the years, the growing involvement of the state in the provision of social services and welfare schemes and in public ownership of industrial, manufacturing, and trading activities has added to the burdens of the government in budgeting and financial management.

JARUGA ALICJA

Abstract

As is generally recognized, state budgets arose earliest in countries that had developed parliamentary traditions. Parliaments initially decided about state revenues and later about their allocation. In Poland the first budgetary records in the form of financial registers have been traced to the fourteenth century. Since that time Polish kings have been asking Parliament for permission to levy new taxes on citizens. However, the first Polish budget was passed by Parliament in 1768, and the Constitution of 1792 established a right for Parliament to approve revenues and public expenditures. This Constitution and the principles of the Polish budget subsequently served as a model for many European countries.