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International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The Balance of Payments Textbook, like the Balance of Payments Compilation Guide, is a companion document to the fifth edition of the Balance of Payments Manual. The Textbook provides illustrative examples and applications of concepts, definitions, classifications, and conventions contained in the Manual and affords compilers with opportunities for enhancing their understanding of the relevant parts of the Manual. The Textbook is one of the main reference materials for training courses in balance of payments methodology.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The Balance of Payments Textbook, like the Balance of Payments Compilation Guide, is a companion document to the fifth edition of the Balance of Payments Manual. The Textbook provides illustrative examples and applications of concepts, definitions, classifications, and conventions contained in the Manual and affords compilers with opportunities for enhancing their understanding of the relevant parts of the Manual. The Textbook is one of the main reference materials for training courses in balance of payments methodology.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The Balance of Payments Textbook, like the Balance of Payments Compilation Guide, is a companion document to the fifth edition of the Balance of Payments Manual. The Textbook provides illustrative examples and applications of concepts, definitions, classifications, and conventions contained in the Manual and affords compilers with opportunities for enhancing their understanding of the relevant parts of the Manual. The Textbook is one of the main reference materials for training courses in balance of payments methodology.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The Balance of Payments Textbook, like the Balance of Payments Compilation Guide, is a companion document to the fifth edition of the Balance of Payments Manual. The Textbook provides illustrative examples and applications of concepts, definitions, classifications, and conventions contained in the Manual and affords compilers with opportunities for enhancing their understanding of the relevant parts of the Manual. The Textbook is one of the main reference materials for training courses in balance of payments methodology.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

1. Balance of payments statistics are included in a broad set of economic statistics known as the national accounts. The System of National Accounts 1993 (1993 SNA) presents the conceptual framework for the national accounts, and the fifth edition (1993) of the Balance of Payments Manual (the BPM) presents the conceptual framework and the structure and classification of the balance of payments. The high level of concordance between the 1993 SNA and the BPM is extremely important.1 This first chapter of the Balance of Payments Textbook (the Textbook) presents the balance of payments conceptual framework and certain internationally agreed-upon accounting conventions that have influenced the shape of that framework. These concepts and specific aspects of methodology are elaborated in subsequent Textbook chapters.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

66. The BPM broadly defines the balance of payments as recording (a) transactions—which take place between an economy and the rest of the world—in goods, services, and income and (b) changes of ownership in that economy’s monetary gold, special drawing rights (SDRs), and claims on/liabilities to the rest of the world. It is therefore essential to know how an economy is defined for BOP purposes. In chapter 2 of the BPM, the economic territory of a country is defined as a geographic territory administered by a government within which persons, goods, and capital circulate freely. For maritime countries, geographic territory includes any islands subject to the same fiscal and monetary authorities as the mainland. This concept is elaborated in chapter 4 of the BPM, which states that the economic territory of a country includes:

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

141. BOP statistics are arranged within a coherent structure to facilitate analysis, which is undertaken for many reasons—including policy formulation, policy monitoring, projections, studies of the behavior of real and financial markets, and bilateral and multilateral comparisons. The list of standard components contained in the BPM provides an international standard for the structural system within which BOP statistics are compiled. This chapter focuses on classifying international transactions according to the system of standard components.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

166. As defined in the BPM, the goods component of the balance of payments covers general merchandise, goods for processing, repairs on goods, goods procured in ports by carriers, and nonmonetary gold. General merchandise (sometimes referred to as merchandise) is defined for BOP purposes as covering (with a few specific exceptions) all movable goods for which actual or imputed changes of ownership occur between residents and nonresidents.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

509. Direct investment is a category of international investment in which a resident entity in one economy (the direct investor) acquires a lasting interest in an enterprise resident in another economy (the direct investment enterprise). Direct investment implies a long-term relationship between the direct investor and the direct investment enterprise and a significant degree of influence by the direct investor on the management of the direct investment enterprise. Direct investment comprises the initial transaction between the two entities—that is, the transaction that establishes the direct investment relationship—and all subsequent transactions between the entities and among affiliated enterprises, both incorporated and unincorporated.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

El Libro de Texto de la Balanza de Pagos, al igual que la Guía de Compilación de la Balanza de Pagos, es un documento complementario de la quinta edición del Manual de balanza de pagos. El libro de texto proporciona ejemplos y aplicaciones para ilustrar los conceptos, definiciones, clasificaciones y convenciones que se presentan en el Manual, y ofrece a los compiladores la oportunidad de comprender mejor las secciones pertinentes del Manual. El libro de texto es parte del material básico de referencia para los cursos de capacitación sobre metodología de la balanza de pagos.