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The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Appendix Note on the Official Reporting of Gold Flows

Appendix Note on the Official Reporting of Gold Flows »

Source: The Structure and Operation of the World Gold Market

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): M. O'Callaghan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1993

ISBN: 9781557752819

Keywords: gold, hoarding, futures contracts, gold futures, gold markets

This Appendix summarizes various practices and sources for reporting gold flows. Table 11 indicates conversion factors for gold, and Table 12 indicates purity standards for gold....

I. Introduction

I. Introduction »

Source: The Structure and Operation of the World Gold Market

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): M. O'Callaghan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1993

ISBN: 9781557752819

Keywords: gold, hoarding, futures contracts, gold futures, gold markets

In spite of gold’s historical monetary significance, a freely functioning world market for gold has just recently come of age. When the price of gold was maintained by monetary authorities at a pre-determine...

II. Market Agents and Instruments

II. Market Agents and Instruments »

Source: The Structure and Operation of the World Gold Market

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): M. O'Callaghan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1993

ISBN: 9781557752819

Keywords: gold, hoarding, futures contracts, gold futures, gold markets

The market for gold consists of a physical gold market, in which gold bullion or coin is transferred between market agents, and a paper gold market, which involves trading in claims to physical stocks rather...

III. Physical Stocks and Flows

III. Physical Stocks and Flows »

Source: The Structure and Operation of the World Gold Market

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): M. O'Callaghan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1993

ISBN: 9781557752819

Keywords: gold, hoarding, futures contracts, gold futures, gold markets

Gold has extraordinary durability and is never “consumed” in the sense that another good might be. In fact, most gold that has ever been brought above ground has remained there, and analysts believe that at...

IV. Bullion Markets, Trading, and Price Setting

IV. Bullion Markets, Trading, and Price Setting »

Source: The Structure and Operation of the World Gold Market

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): M. O'Callaghan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1993

ISBN: 9781557752819

Keywords: gold, hoarding, futures contracts, gold futures, gold markets

Insofar as a market for gold existed prior to the 1970s, it was essentially focused in the London bullion market, whose history can be described in terms of the activities of the five London bullion houses t...

The Structure and Operation of the World Gold Market

The Structure and Operation of the World Gold Market »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): M. O'Callaghan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1993

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557752819.084

ISBN: 9781557752819

Keywords: gold, hoarding, futures contracts, gold futures, gold markets

This paper describes the structure of the world gold market, its sources of supply and demand, and how it functions. The paper examines the composition and origin of physical stocks of gold, their flows, and their...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: The Structure and Operation of the World Gold Market

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): M. O'Callaghan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1993

ISBN: 9781557752819

Keywords: gold, hoarding, futures contracts, gold futures, gold markets

This paper describes the structure of the world gold market, its sources of supply and demand, and how it functions. The paper examines the composition and origin of physical stocks of gold, their flows, and their...

V. Paper Markets and Prices

V. Paper Markets and Prices »

Source: The Structure and Operation of the World Gold Market

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): M. O'Callaghan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1993

ISBN: 9781557752819

Keywords: gold, hoarding, futures contracts, gold futures, gold markets

In addition to markets in the derivative physical instruments already described, numerous markets in paper instruments have been developed since the early 1970s. Futures and Options Exc...

VI. Concluding Remarks

VI. Concluding Remarks »

Source: The Structure and Operation of the World Gold Market

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): M. O'Callaghan

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 1993

ISBN: 9781557752819

Keywords: gold, hoarding, futures contracts, gold futures, gold markets

Since 1968, the world gold market has developed into a fully fledged global market, complete with a full range of derivative financial instruments that allow the adoption of hedging and options strategies (s...