Marco Casiraghi, Thomas McGregor, and Dino Palazzo
We investigate the role of business dynamism in the transmission of monetary policy by exploitingthe variation in firm demographics across U.S. states. Using local projections, we find that a larger fraction of young firms significantly mutes the effects of monetary policy on the labor market and personal income over the medium term. The firm entry rate and the employment share of young firms are key factors underpinning these results, which are robust to a battery of robustness tests. We develop a heterogeneous-firm model with age-dependent financial frictions that rationalizes the empirical evidence.
On October 30, 2020, the IMF’s Executive Board reviewed the adequacy of the Fund’s precautionary balances. Precautionary balances, comprising the Fund’s general and special reserves and the Special Contingent Account (SCA-1), are one element of the IMF’s multi-layered framework for managing financial risks. These balances provide a buffer to protect the Fund against potential losses, resulting from credit, income, and other financial risks. This review of the adequacy of the Fund’s precautionary balances took place on the standard two-year cycle, although it was delayed by a few months to allow for an assessment of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Fund financial risks. In conducting the review, the Executive Board applied the rules-based framework agreed in 2010.