The contents of this report constitute technical advice provided by the staff of the IMF to the authorities of Nigeria in response to their request for technical assistance. Unlocking the potential of a rapidly growing population requires substantial improvements in human and physical capital. Nigeria is Africa’s most populous country and its largest economy. Recognizing challenges, Nigeria has embraced the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Agenda. The Economic Recovery and Growth Plan 2017–2020 gives prominence to economic, social and environmental issues. This report assesses additional spending associated with making substantial progress along the SDGs. The report focuses on critical areas of human and physical capital. For each sector, the report documents progress to date, assesses Nigeria relative to peers, highlights challenges, and estimates the spending to make substantial SDG progress. Nigeria has shown gradual improvements in education. A gradual and strategic approach should be considered given the relatively large additional spending.
This paper discusses the common policies of the member countries of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). CEMAC’s medium-term outlook remains challenging. It foresees a gradual improvement in the economic and financial situation in the region, assuming full implementation of policy commitments by CEMAC member states and regional institutions. Policies to diversify the economies by improving the business environment, including through enhanced governance and transparency, would support higher growth in the medium term. The monetary policy stance would be kept tight as needed to support external stability and reserves accumulation.
This Selected Issues paper discusses the structure of the financial sector in Chad and describes the key macro-financial linkages. Macro-financial linkages in Chad are driven by a government sector that dominates economic activities in the more modern sectors of the economy, thanks to oil-related revenues. The main macro-financial linkages are indirect through the associated sharp fiscal adjustment and the government’s quest for additional financing. Direct credit risks linked to the oil sector appear limited. However, there seems to be a link between declining oil prices and deteriorating banking soundness indicators. The current economic conditions negatively affect private companies dependent on public contracts, potentially hitting the health of banks’ loan portfolios.
Corinne Deléchat, Ms. Ejona Fuli, Mrs. Dafina Glaser, Mr. Gustavo Ramirez, and Rui Xu
This paper studies the role of fiscal policies and institutions in building resilience in sub-Saharan
African countries during 1990-2013, with specific emphasis on a group of twenty-six countries that
were deemed fragile in the 1990s. As the drivers of fragility and resilience are closely intertwined, we
use GMM estimation as well as a probabilistic framework to address endogeneity and reverse
causality. We find that fiscal institutions and fiscal space, namely the capacity to raise tax revenue
and contain current spending, as well as lower military spending and, to some extent, higher social
expenditure, are significantly and fairly robustly associated with building resilience. Similar
conclusions arise from a study of the progression of a group of seven out of the twenty-six sub-
Saharan African countries that managed to build resilience after years of civil unrest and/or violent
conflict. These findings suggest relatively high returns to focusing on building sound fiscal
institutions in fragile states. The international community can help this process through policy advice,
technical assistance, and training on tax administration and budget reforms.
This Selected Issues paper examines recent performance and reform agenda for Cameroon’s state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Cameroon’s SOEs are important providers of formal employment and have a large weight in the economy. The profitability and financial autonomy of SOEs have deteriorated in recent years, draining scarce budget resources. In addition, SOEs have amassed significant contingent liabilities in the form of debt and arrears. Weak corporate governance is a key factor in SOEs’ poor performance. The reform agenda should include enhancing the monitoring of SOEs, improving disclosure of their contingent liabilities, and strengthening their governance.
This Selected Issues paper compares the growth performance of Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) countries with that of comparative countries. During the last two decades, the average growth of CEMAC countries has been slower than the sub-Saharan African average. The results of the analysis show that convergence of CEMAC countries toward emerging market levels has stalled, while some lower-income, faster-growing economies have been catching up. Decomposing growth by contributing factors reveals that the total factor productivity has had a negative impact on CEMAC’s growth.
This paper discusses common policies of the member countries of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). Medium-term prospects for CEMAC are uncertain. Despite their recent stabilization, oil prices are projected to remain well below pre-shock levels in the medium term. In addition, oil production is projected to start falling after 2017. The Executive Directors have encouraged the authorities to accelerate the reform of the monetary policy framework to improve transmission channels and better manage systemic liquidity. They have also stressed the importance of full compliance with the pooling of foreign exchange earnings with the regional central bank, and called for stepped-up efforts to implement outstanding safeguards recommendations.