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  • Corporate Finance and Governance: Government Policy and Regulation x
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Mr. Tanai Khiaonarong
This paper examines oversight issues that underlie the potential growth and risks in mobile payments. International experience suggests that financial authorities can develop effective oversight frameworks for new payment methods to safeguard public confidence and financial stability by establishing: (i) a clear legal regime; (ii) proportionate AML/CFT measures to prevent financial integrity risks; (iii) fund safeguarding measures such as insurance, similar guarantee schemes, or “pass through” deposit insurance; (iv) contingency plans for operational disruptions; and (v) risk controls and access criteria in payment systems. Such measures are particularly important for low-income countries where diffusion is becoming more widespread.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
The assessment of the implementation of the Basel Core Principles (BCP) was conducted for effective banking supervision in Nigeria. The assessment team reviewed the legal framework for banking supervision and held extensive discussions with the staff of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and the Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC). It is assessed that Nigeria has recorded significant improvement in its level of compliance with the BCPs, which is attributed to the enhancement of the supervisory capacity of Nigerian banking system supervisors.
Olatundun Janet Adelegan
This paper examines the impact of regional cross-listing on stock prices. The sample consists of sub- Saharan African firms that have cross-listed during the period 1992-2008. Using event study methodology, the study finds positive abnormal returns around the date of the regional cross-listing of stocks. The positive announcement period effect, together with the normal post cross-listing performance, shows that regional cross-listing increases firm value. Overall, this provides evidence that firms benefit from listing outside their home market and need to be taken into consideration by SSA country authorities as they seek a regional approach to stock market development. Thus, policy makers of both the countries of primary listing (home country) and secondary listing (host country) need the right policy handles to conceptualize, facilitate and steer regional cross-listing efforts by firms. Through complementary policy-based efforts, policy makers can set the stage for regional cross-listings and harness the numerous related benefits.
International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper on Nigeria highlights challenges faced by the country in building on the achievements of 2004. The authorities will have to maintain macroeconomic stability while implementing ambitious structural reforms aimed at reducing the costs of doing business in Nigeria and supporting faster growth and poverty reduction. The government’s ambitious and broad-based medium-term economic reform strategy and the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy aim to break with the misguided government-led development paradigm of the past that created a difficult environment for the private sector.

Mr. Aditya Narain, Mr. Pau Rabanal, and Steen Byskov
This paper examines the prudential issues associated with credit concentration in less diversified economies (LDEs), which are identified as countries where one or two sectors represent a large share of exports. In preparing this analysis, the characteristics of their financial and banking systems and their interactions with the real sector are studied. The paper also examines the limitations on portfolio diversification confronting banks in these countries, both from the viewpoint of the real sector and of the financial system. The paper finds that banks in LDEs, particularly in low-income countries, appear to face higher risk than their peers in more diversified economies and makes suggestions for policy options and regulatory practices which could be encouraged in such systems.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

In the second half of the 1980s, Japan enjoyed above-trend economic growth and near-zero inflation. These conditions resulted in a significant decline in the country risk premium and a marked upward adjustment in growth expectations, which boosted asset price inflation fueled by credit expansion. At the time, Japanese banks were considered among the strongest in the world. During the same period, the pace of financial liberalization and deregulation accelerated, which spurred price competition and prompted banks and other depository institutions to take greater risks, including increased lending to the real estate industry. As land prices rose, these institutions loosened credit standards. In response, the authorities limited total bank lending to the real estate sector, curtailing the banks’ asset growth.