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  • Corporate Finance and Governance: Government Policy and Regulation x
  • Financial regulation and supervision x
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Ljubica Dordevic, Caio Ferreira, Moses Kitonga, and Katharine Seal
The paper employs two complementary strategies. First, it is pursues textual analysis (text mining) of the assessment reports to identify successes and challenges the authorities are facing. Second, it analyzes the grades in the Basel Core Principles assessments, including their evolution and association with bank fragility.
Mariusz Jarmuzek and Mr. Tonny Lybek
This paper argues that better governance practices can reduce the costs, risks and uncertainty of financial intermediation. Our sample covers high-, middle- and low-income countries before and after the global financial crisis (GFC). We find that net interest margins of banks are lower if various governance indicators are better. More cross-border lending also appears conducive to lower intermediation costs, while the level of capital market development is not significant. The GFC seems not to have had a strong impact except via credit risk. Finally, we estimate the size of potential gains from improved governance.
Mr. Ashraf Khan
This paper describes how behavioral elements are relevant to financial supervision, regulation, and central banking. It focuses on (1) behavioral effects of norms (social, legal, and market); (2) behavior of others (internalization, identification, and compliance); and (3) psychological biases. It stresses that financial supervisors, regulators, and central banks have not yet realized the full potential that these behavioral elements hold. To do so, they need to devise a behavioral approach that includes aspects relating to individual and group behavior. The paper provides case examples of experiments with such an approach, including behavioral supervision. Finally, it highlights areas for further research.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper presents an assessment of the level of observance of the Insurance Core Principles (ICPs) in China. Overall, the Chinese regulatory system is assessed to have a good level of compliance with the ICPs. The regulatory framework includes, in addition to the solvency standards, extensive requirements on corporate governance, risk management and internal controls as well as on reinsurance, disclosure and conduct of business. All these requirements are applied appropriately to the significant number of large insurance groups, which together account for the bulk of premium income. However, there is scope for further development of crisis preparedness and market conduct work.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Technical Note discusses the findings and recommendations in the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) for Spain in the area of banking supervision. Banking regulation and supervision of Spanish banks have improved considerably since the 2012 FSAP. Swift and determined action addressed the major weaknesses that led to the accumulation of imbalances in the banking system in the period leading to the crisis. Further reforms are needed because the transformation of the banking supervision function is far from complete. Actions to address misclassification and underprovisioning of assets have shown very good progress, but oversight must continue.
Rima Turk-Ariss
Concerns about excessive variability in bank risk weights have prompted their review by regulators. This paper provides prima facie evidence on the extent of risk weight heterogeneity across broad asset classes and by country of counterparty for major banks in the European Union using internal models. It also finds that corporate risk weights are sensitive to the riskiness of an average representative firm, but not to a market indicator of a firm’s probablity of default. Under plausible yet severe hypothetical scenarios for harmonized risk weights, counterfactual capital ratios would decline significantly for some banks, but they would not experience a shortfall relative to Basel III’s minimum requirements. This, however, does not preclude falling short of meeting additional national supervisory capital requirements.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Detailed Assessment report, a part of the 2013 Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) of Canada, assesses Canada’s regulatory regime and supervisory practices against the international standards. The IMF report suggests that the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions (OSFI) should be empowered to take supervisory measures at the level of the holding company. It highlights that while OSFI requires Federally Regulated Insurers (FRI) FRIs to develop internal capital targets, requirements to develop an Own Risk and Solvency Assessment are scheduled to be implemented in 2014.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

This Selected Issues paper presents Italy’s economic growth through innovation and reforms. It highlights that Italy’s future competitiveness depends on the institutional and macroeconomic conditions that allow productive firms to innovate, expand, and attract inward foreign direct investment (FDI) that in turn will require the successful implementation of the authorities’ full structural- and institutional-reform agenda. The IMF report focuses on the enforcement of civil and commercial claims in Italy as a key way to improve the environment for sustaining economic growth. There has been considerable interest in the possibility of introducing a comprehensive wealth tax in Italy, reflecting the public resistance to spending-only austerity.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
The assessment of the implementation of the Basel Core Principles (BCP) was conducted for effective banking supervision in Nigeria. The assessment team reviewed the legal framework for banking supervision and held extensive discussions with the staff of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and the Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC). It is assessed that Nigeria has recorded significant improvement in its level of compliance with the BCPs, which is attributed to the enhancement of the supervisory capacity of Nigerian banking system supervisors.