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International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This Selected Issues paper analyzes the wage moderation in the Netherlands. Wage growth has been subdued in the Netherlands despite tighter labor market conditions in recent years. Besides various cyclical factors, rising labor market flexibility may have contributed to the wage moderation in the Netherlands. Like other advanced economies, slower productivity growth and lower expected inflation are important drivers to the wage moderation in the recent years. In addition to that, remaining slack in the labor market also weighed on wage growth. Going forward, wages are expected to grow faster given higher expected inflation, foreign wage spillovers, and tightening labor market.
International Monetary Fund

This paper describes economic developments in Guatemala during the 1990s. The paper discusses social and institutional expenditures of the peace program. The paper highlights that Guatemala’s illiteracy rate was approximately 44 percent in 1995, the second highest in Latin America. Illiteracy is much higher in the predominantly rural departments (about 65 percent), where the indigenous population is more heavily concentrated, than in Guatemala City (16 percent) and is much higher for women (46 percent) than for men (33 percent). The paper also discusses the tax system and trade regime in Guatemala.