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International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This 2019 Article IV Consultation highlights that Finland’s economy has performed well over the past three years, however, has slowed in 2019. There are some vulnerabilities in household finances, and productivity growth remains weak, with trend growth also constrained by adverse demographics. A new coalition government targets greater social support and inclusion, higher employment, carbon neutrality by 2035, and a balanced budget by 2023. A key challenge is to balance plans to increase spending with the need to maintain fiscal buffers. The fiscal expansion is expected to provide useful cyclical support in the short run, but offsetting measures will be required to ensure the structural balance reaches the government’s medium-term target. The government aims for a substantial increase in employment, but the effectiveness of the proposed wage subsidies is unclear. Alternatively, incentives from tax and benefit schedules could be improved, especially for younger women, older workers, and those out of the workforce. Risks in the banking system remain low overall, but some types of lending are increasing household vulnerabilities. The recent recommendation to limit the ratio of household debt to income is both sensible and in line with steps taken in many other countries.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This 2016 Article IV Consultation highlights that with a soft global trade environment and a downturn in tourism arrivals from Mainland China, the growth rate of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is expected to have slowed to 1.5 percent in 2016. Growth is likely to pick up modestly to about 2 percent in 2017, with private consumption continuing to be a main driver supported by a steady labor market. The current account surplus remained below 3 percent of GDP. Over the longer term, aging pressures may weaken the structural fiscal position, requiring fiscal planning to alleviate the decline, and a housing supply shortage also needs to be tackled.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

The vibrant Hong Kong SAR economy has been supported by low interest rates and mainland China's economic development over the past decade. But the external outlook is now more challenging. Long-term issues such as aging and a housing supply shortage also loom. Strong policy frameworks and ample buffers are in place to weather a less favorable environment. Prudent fiscal policy and intensive supervision of the financial system have built buffers that can be drawn on when needed.

International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

This paper discusses backgrounds and recent developments in the economy of Hungary. The Hungarian economy has been growing at a robust pace over the past few years helped by supportive macroeconomic policies, a favorable external environment, and high utilization of European Union (EU) funds. Unemployment declined sharply, amid a continuous rise in labor participation. Inflationary pressures have remained subdued. Better-than-budgeted fiscal performance last year helped reduce the public debt ratio. But 2016 is not going to be very encouraging for Hungarian economy. Growth prospects remain subdued reflecting an adverse business climate. The balance of risks is tilted to the downside.

International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
The 2015 Article IV Consultation provides an overview of New Zealand's economic development and policies. Tailwinds have supported the economy's strong growth after the global financial crisis. However, the tailwinds have recently waned. Growth peaked at 3.5 percent year-over-year in the fourth quarter of 2014, bringing output slightly above potential. The exchange rate depreciation has cushioned some of the impact of the decline in dairy prices. The depreciation has mitigated the impact of the international dairy price decline on farmers' incomes and supported exports of travel and education services. Fiscal policy is also supportive of the economy in the short term, while consolidation is projected to resume in the medium term.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept

This 2015 Article IV Consultation highlights that the growth of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is expected at 2.25 percent in 2015, with domestic demand acting as the principal source of momentum. Growth is likely to pick up modestly to 2.5 percent in 2016, with a smaller drag from external demand reinforcing resilient domestic demand. Inflation has declined and is expected to remain below 3 percent in 2015-16 on softer commodity prices. The current account has dropped to about 2.5 percent of GDP, but is projected to improve to about 3.5 percent over the medium term as the global economy recovers.

International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This 2014 Article IV Consultation highlights that the Danish economy is recovering slowly and unevenly. The economy contracted slightly in 2013, but it looks likely to accelerate modestly in 2014. Growth is held down by a trend decline in North Sea oil and gas production as well as exports to euro-area partners. At the same time, private domestic demand and non-oil exports are supporting growth. The recovery is likely to continue but remain fragile. Annual growth is estimated at 0.7 percent in 2014, projected to increase to 1.4 percent in 2015, and trend to slightly above 2 percent thereafter.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR)'s healthy labor market and supportive fiscal policy helped its domestic economy's resilience, while its gross domestic product (GDP) growth was marginally slow owing to its weak external environment. Its fiscal policy has been effective in reducing output volatility and providing timely support to help counter the impact from slowing external demand. The authorities have taken appropriate macroprudential measures to help safeguard the banking system, which should continue to be fine-tuned in line with evolving risks.
International Monetary Fund
Important issues of the Netherlands are discussed. Openness to trade has benefited the Netherlands before the crisis and has supported the recent recovery process. However, both financial openness and trade linkages have also been a transmission channel for the financial crisis. Synchronized fiscal tightening across Europe has important spillover effects for GDP growth. The improvement on the supply side of credit has contributed to a normalization of the credit market. However, the recent increase in the financial stress index indicates that the situation is still fragile.