Mr. Ramana Ramaswamy, Mr. Jorge Roldos, Mr. Donald J Mathieson, and Ms. Anna Ilyina
In response to the volatility of capital flows since the mid-1990s, many emerging market economies have taken a variety of steps designed to “selfinsure” against volatile capital flows. One such measure has been the development of local securities and derivatives markets as an alternative source of funding the public and corporate sectors. This paper examines this self-insurance policy, focusing on the extent to which emerging markets have developed local securities and derivatives, and what key policy issues have arisen as a result.
This study provides information on official financing and the debt situation of developing countries. It discusses issues related to trade finance in financial crises, and the challenge of maintaining external debt sustainability in debtor countries. It updates the 2001 edition of Official Financing for Developing Countries.
This paper reviews developments and issues in the exchange arrangements and currency convertibility of IMF members. Against the backdrop of continuing financial globalization and a series of emerging market crises since 1997, there have been important changes in the evolution of exchange rate regimes and the pace of liberalization of current and capital transactions among IMF member countries. There has been a shift away from intermediate regimes according to the IMF's official exchange rate regime classification system based on de facto exchange rate policies. The de facto exchange rate classification system has helped to clarify the nature and role of members' exchange rate regimes. It has facilitated discussions with country authorities about the implementation of exchange rate regimes and hence has contributed to more effective surveillance of the international monetary system. The use of exchange controls appears to have been little influenced by the degree of flexibility of exchange rate regimes or the occurrences of currency crises.
Following a review and assesment of recent developments in capital market and banking systems, this year's International Capital Markets report review and assesses recent developments in mature and emerging financial markets and continues the analysis of key issues affecting global financial markets. It examines the systemic implications of the continued rapid development of the global over-the-counter derivatives markets and the expansion of foreign-owned banks into emerging markets. The report also analyzes market participants assessments of the proposals for private sector involvement in the prevention and resolution of crises.
Following a review and assessment of recent developments in capital market and banking systems, this year's International Capital Markets report reviews and assesses recent developments in mature and emerging financial markets and continues the analysis of key issues affecting global financial markets. It examines the systemic implications of the continued rapid development of the global over-the-counter derivatives markets and the expansion of foreign-owned banks into emerging markets. The report also analyzes market participants' assessments of the proposals for private sector involvement in the prevention and resolution crises.
This interim update of the IMF's latest regular reports on the World Economic Outlook (published in October 1998) and International Capital Markets (September 1998) provides a preliminary assessment of the unusual turbulence in international financial markets during much of the period August-November 1998, and its implications for the global economic outlook and for policy. The survey of prospects and policies is the product of a comprehensive interdepartmental review of world economic developments, which draws primarily on information the IMF gathers through its consultations with member countries. For its eveluation of developments in financial markets, the report also draws, in part, on informal discussions with commercial and investment banks, securities firms, stock and futures exchanges, and regulatory and monetary authorities.
Mr. Christopher J. Jarvis, Mr. Balázs Horváth, and Mr. Michael G. Kuhn
This study discusses the importance of export credits, their recent growth, and the trend toward more extensive reliance by official bilateral creditors on export credits as an instrument of financial support, and raises a number of issues regarding the role and limitations of export credit financing, espeically for economies in transition.
This study surveys recent trends in private market financing for developing countries. In addition to examining developments in flows to developing countries through banking and securites markets, it analyzes the institutional and regulatory framework for developing country finance, institutional investor behavior and pricing of developing country stocks, management of public sector debt and implications of private external borrowing for macroeconomic policy management, and progress in commercial bank debt restructuring in low-income countries
This paper reports the growing number of low-income countries that are making efforts to resolve their debt problems, often aided by the resources of the debt reduction facility for countries of the International Development Association (IDA). Progress for most, however, remains slow. With the backing of IDA resources and assistance from official bilateral sources, debt buy-backs have been concluded by Bolivia, Guyana, Mozambique, Niger, Sao Tome and Principe, Uganda, and Zambia. Preliminary discussions on similar operations are under way with several other countries. Although most of the major baric debt cases have been resolved, attention still needs to be focused on the problems of low-income countries. In many of these countries, the process of debt restructuring has been delayed owing to economic and political difficulties. To maintain market access on reasonable terms, countries need consistently to implement strong macroeconomic and structural policy programs. Maintenance of such programs is likely to be particularly important in the period ahead, given the high degree of uncertainty with regard to interest rate movements in the industrial countries.
This paper reviews recent developments in private market financing for developing countries. Bank creditors themselves have been more amenable to restructuring in an environment where secondary market discounts on bank claims were falling significantly below the level of bank provisioning. This has allowed banks to realize substantial book profits by participating in debt operations. Debt conversions have also played a substantial role in reducing commercial bank debt. The pace of such conversions, however, has slowed over the past year in response to lower secondary market discounts on external debt and to a drop in privatization-related conversions. The re-entry to international capital markets by certain middle-income countries that had experienced debt-servicing difficulties gathered momentum over the past year. Total bond issues in international markets by the main re-entrants accounted for over half of issues by developing countries in this period. In contrast to the experience in securities markets, new bank lending to market re-entrants has remained limited and is confined mainly to short-term trade lines or project financing.