This paper discusses the common policies adopted by the members of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). The macroeconomic performance was good in 2011 with improved fiscal balances, public investment programs, and higher reserves. However, CEMAC is facing challenges from deep-seated structural problems, including uncoordinated fiscal policy, financial sector weaknesses, and obstacles to growth and competitiveness. The Executive Board recommends monetary policies for financial stability and suggest making monetary policies an efficient tool of macroeconomic management. Also, the Board recommends strengthening of governance of CEMAC’s common institutions.
Macroeconomic developments benefited from oil windfalls, but structural problems still impede non-oil growth. Fiscal and external balances improved in the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) because of the surge in oil prices and better fiscal management. Oil-related reserve inflows also helped accelerate regional broad money, leading to somewhat higher inflation and a small further appreciation of the real effective exchange rate (REER). Macroeconomic prospects for 2006 are positive, despite persistent structural challenges. Higher oil income offers CEMAC members economic opportunities but also challenges.
The creation, in 1994, of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) customs union was a major step in the regional integration process in central Africa. The implementation of the agreed regime by the member countries, however, has remained unsatisfactory. A 2002–03 initiative to improve policy implementation has largely stalled. Several recent initiatives concerning external trade provide new challenges and opportunities for welfare-enhancing reforms. Although the 1994 reforms that created the CEMAC customs union were a major step forward, the trade regime remains plagued by poor implementation.
This Selected Issues paper on the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) reviews the evolution of actual and equilibrium real effective exchange rates (REER). The current level of the CEMAC REER is broadly in line with its long-term equilibrium value. The estimation approach herein is subject to certain limitations, some of which are inherent to the literature that tries to estimate the equilibrium REERs. Absolute statements about magnitudes of any possible misalignments should be avoided given the degree of model uncertainty; error bands around estimated equilibrium exchange rates may, in some cases, yield inconclusive results.
Over the past two decades, Nigeria has not reaped fully the benefits of its national wealth despite its efforts at structural adjustment. This paper concludes that the facts do not justify the negative image that structural adjustment has had in Nigeria. Vigorous market reforms and tight financial policies had resulted in economic growth and employment expansion, but they were abandoned too soon to have sustained benefits.
This paper reviews economic developments in Chad during 1990–95. After a noticeable deterioration during 1991–93, Chad’s economy rebounded in 1994 following the devaluation, and continued to expand in 1995. During 1991–93, economic and financial developments were characterized by persistent domestic and external imbalances, which negatively affected economic growth and increased poverty. Real GDP and import volumes stagnated, export volumes dropped by 12 percent, and the terms of trade declined by 11 percent; investment remained low, barely averaging 10 percent of GDP, and real consumption per capita declined by 15 percent.
International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department
The speeches made by officials attending the IMF–World Bank Annual Meetings are published in this volume, along with the press communiqués issued by the International Monetary and Financial Committee and the Development Committee at the conclusion of the meetings.