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Elizabeth Gavin
This note outlines the interest of Revenue Administrations (RAs) and National Statistical Offices (NSOs) in the quality of data at their disposal, and how collaboration between these organizations can contribute to improving data quality. The similarities between the data collection and processing steps in revenue administration and in the production of economic statistics underlie meaningful information and data sharing. Mutually beneficial collaboration between RAs and NSOs can be achieved, particularly in efforts to improve the coverage of registers and to update register information; classify economic activity; and analyze joint data to address data shortcomings. Since there are differences in concepts and definitions used in revenue administration and official statistics, dialogue is necessary to ensure the effective use of data from the partner organization. Collaboration can improve the quality of data available to both institutions: for RAs, this can assist in realizing improved taxpayer compliance and revenue mobilization, and for NSOs, tax-administrative data sources may enable expanded coverage of the economy in official statistics and reduce timeframes required for publishing economic time series and national accounts. Together, these outcomes can enhance the policy formulation, planning, and service delivery capability of governments. To that end, this note delineates concrete steps to engender sustainable and meaningful interchange of information and data between the RA and NSO.
Aqib Aslam and Ms. Alpa Shah
The ever-increasing digitalization of businesses has accelerated the need to address the many shortcomings and unresolved issues within the international corporate income tax system. In particular, the customer or “user”—through their online activities—is now considered by many as being a critical driving force behind the value of digital services. Furthermore, the rapid growth of digital service providers over the last decade has made them an increasingly popular target for special taxes—similar to wealth and solidarity taxes—which can also help mobilize much-needed revenues in the wake of a crisis. This paper argues that a plausible conceptual case can be made to tax the value generated by users under the corporate income tax. However, a number of issues need to be tackled for user-based tax measures to become a reality, which include agreement among countries on whether user value justifies a reallocation of taxing rights, establishing the legal right to tax income derived from user value, as well as an appropriate metric for valuing user-generated data if it is ever to be used as a tax base. Furthermore, attempting to tax only certain types of business is ill-advised, especially as user data is now being exploited widely enough for it to be recognized as an input for almost all businesses. Several options present themselves for consideration—from a modified permanent establishment definition combined with taxation by formulary apportionment, to user-based royalty-type taxes—each with their own merits and misdemeanors.
International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.
This technical assistance report on Malaysia highlights that the mission aimed to support the Malaysian authorities in improving government finance statistics (GFS) for decision making. The mission reviewed the progress in the implementation of the accounting project to introduce accrual financial reporting standards at the federal government level. The mission identified considerable potential for collaboration between Ministry of Finance (MOF) and Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOSM) with respect to fiscal data collection for other general government sublayers and public nonfinancial corporations. The mission concluded that the general ledger structure is sufficient to produce GFS on both cash and an accrual basis. The mission suggested that collaboration between MOF and DOSM going forward would be necessary to ensure data consistency and to facilitate the explanation of remaining minor differences to users. The mission recommends that the authorities verify the causes for inconsistencies based on recent annual data, and to formally align the collaboration between the institutions.
José Garrido, Mr. Wolfgang Bergthaler, Ms. Chanda M DeLong, Juliet Johnson, Amira Rasekh, Anjum Rosha, and Natalia Stetsenko
To date, the use of empirical data in insolvency law analysis has been sporadic. This paper provides a conceptual framework for the use of data to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of insolvency systems. The paper analyzes the existing sources of data on insolvency proceedings, including general insolvency statistics, judicial statistics, statistics of insolvency regulators and other sources, and advocates for the design of special data collection mechanisms and statistics to conduct detailed assessments of insolvency systems and to assist in the design of legal reforms.
Lisbeth Rivas and Mr. Joe Crowley
Statistical agencies worldwide are increasingly turning to new data sources, including administrative data, to improve statistical coverage. Administrative data can significantly enhance the quality of national statistics and produce synergies with tax administration and other government agencies, supporting better decision making, policy advice, and economic performance. Compared to economic censuses and business surveys, administrative data are less burdensome to collect and produce more timely, detailed, and accurate data with better coverage. This paper specifically explores the use of value added tax and income tax records to enhance the compilation of national accounts statistics.
International Monetary Fund

This paper discusses key findings of the Fourth Review Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) for Madagascar. Program performance has been generally good. The authorities have continued to implement sound fiscal and monetary policies that have resulted in good macroeconomic outcomes. They met all of the quantitative performance criteria (PCs) for end-January 2008, but missed two structural PCs. The international reserves cover is expected to deteriorate markedly, prompting the authorities to ask for an augmentation of 15 percent of quota, a request that IMF staff supports.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Voici plusieurs décennies que la nécessité d'une stratégie moderne de lutte contre le blanchiment de capitaux a été largement admise au niveau international. Le fait de priver les éléments criminels du produit de leurs crimes a été considéré de plus en plus comme un outil important pour lutter contre le trafic de stupéfiants et, plus récemment, comme un élément essentiel de la lutte contre le crime organisé, la corruption et le financement du terrorisme, ainsi que de la préservation de l'intégrité des marchés de capitaux. Les toutes premières cellules de renseignements financiers (CRF) ont été créées au début des années 90 en réponse à la nécessité pour les pays de disposer d'un organisme central pour la réception l'analyse et la diffusion d'informations financières en vue de lutter contre le blanchiment de capitaux. Au cours de la période qui a suivi, le nombre de CRF a continué d'augmenter : on en comptait 84 en 2003. Ce manuel répond aux besoins d'informations sur les CRF. Les informations fournies incluent le cas échéant des renvois aux normes pertinentes du GAFI.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

A partir de la última década, se comenzó a reconocer a nivel internacional la necesidad de adoptar una estrategia moderna para la prevención del lavado de activos. Privar a los criminales del producto de su actividad delictiva se está convirtiendo, en forma creciente, en un instrumento importante para combatir el comercio ilegítimo de estupefacientes y, más recientemente, en un elemento esencial de la lucha contra la delincuencia organizada, la corrupción y el financiamiento del terrorismo, y una forma de mantener la integridad de los mercados financieros. Las primeras unidades de inteligencia financiera (UIF) se crearon a comienzos de los años noventa como respuesta a la necesidad de los países de contar con un organismo central para recibir, analizar y divulgar información financiera con el fin de combatir el lavado de dinero. En el período subsiguiente, la cantidad de unidades de inteligencia financiera siguió aumentando hasta llegar a 84 en 2003. Este manual constituye una respuesta a la necesidad de información sobre las unidades de inteligencia financiera. En los casos pertinentes, se hace referencia a las normas correspondientes del Grupo de Acción Financiera Internacional (GAFI).

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Over the past decade and beyond, the need for a modern anti-money-laundering strategy has become widely accepted internationally. Depriving criminal elements of the proceeds of their crimes has increasingly been seen as an important tool to combat drug trafficking and, more recently, as a critical element in fighting organized crime, corruption, and the financing of terrorism, and maintaining the integrity of financial markets. The first few financial intelligence units (FIUs) were established in the early 1990s in response to the need for countries to have a central agency to receive, analyze, and disseminate financial information to combat money laundering. Over the ensuing period, the number of FIUs has continued to increase, reaching 84 in 2003. This handbook responds to the need for information on FIUs. It provides references to the appropriate Financial ActionTask Force (FATF) standards wherever appropriate.