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International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues Paper examines the main channels of transmission of the global financial crisis on Togo’s economy. This paper assesses its impact, focusing on 2009 and considering country-specific factors that may aggravate, mitigate, or offset its effects. The decrease in global demand has already brought down the prices of its main exports, phosphate and cotton, which already had problems. The increase in unemployment in Europe and the United States may also affect Togo through lower remittances, which have been a significant source of income.
Mr. Yaya Moussa
There are strong similarities between the French and French-inspired African PEM systems in terms of the legal setting, rules, and procedures. However, there are differences in practice, particularly in accounting and reporting, audit, and external control. Among the African countries themselves, there are many common features but also marked differences in audit and external control.
Mr. Ernesto Hernández-Catá and C. A. François


Following a serious deterioration of the competitive position of the WAEMU region in the 1980s and the eary 1990s, the countries took steps that have led to a significant turnaround in economic activity, a drop in inflation, and increases in output, exports and investment. This study describes policy issues that the region continues to face and suggests how the WAEMU countries can address them.

International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
Selections from this paper were delivered at the Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Association, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on September 8, 1965.